Friday, December 11, 2015

The Blue Thunder, Or Yellow Lodge, Winter Count

A composite image of the Blue Thunder Winter Count.
Wakíŋyaŋ Tȟó Waníyetu Wowápi
The Blue Thunder Winter Count
Edited by Dakota Wind
BISMARCK, N.D. - The Blue Thunder Winter Count is currently part of the permanent collections at the State Historical Society of North Dakota. Blue Thunder's story can be found here. Following his death sometime in the 1920s, the winter count tradition was taken up by Yellow Lodge. The last dozen or so entries clearly by a hand not Blue Thunder's. 

Blue Thunder had no known children, no sons or daughters of his own, but the tradition was taken up by his step-daughter Tópa Kdí Inážiŋ Wiŋ (Stops Four Times Returning Woman). She in turn passed it down to her daughters (one of those daughters is this writer's own great-grandmother, Tȟaté Dúta Wiŋ (Scarlet Wind Woman). 

He Nuŋpá Waníča (Lit. "Horn/s Two There-Are-None"), or No Two Horns, rendered this winter count. It is currently in the collections at the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

The Blue Thunder Winter Count entries are matched in the entries of the No Two Horns Winter Count (pictographs are rendered in No Two Horns own wonderful artistic hand).

1785-86:          Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka wíŋyaŋ waŋ iyéyapi (With-Energy Great woman a found-for-themselves). They found a Great Spirit woman.

Blue Thunder said that this was near the ocean, or the mouth of the Missouri River.

According to High Hawk (Oglála) the Lakȟóta captured a Hóhe (Assiniboine) woman who cried out that she was a Wakȟáŋ Tȟaŋká wiŋyáŋ. They took her with them regardless, but later freed her.

1786-87:          Ȟewáktokta ób kičhízapi kiŋ (Hidatsa with battle-they the). They fought with the Hidatsa.

1787-88:          Pȟóğe HáŋskA ktépi (Nostril Long killed-they). They killed Long Nose.

1788-89:          Pȟehíŋ HáŋskA waŋ ktépi (Hair Long a killed-they). They killed a Long Hair.

1789-90:          Mníyaye Yuhá waŋ ktépi (Water-Carrier Has a killed-they). They killed Water-Carrier-Owner.

1790-91:          Wapȟáha Kitȟúŋ tȟóka ahí ktépi (Warbonnet To-Wear-Something enemy came-here killed-they). An enemy came and killed Wears-Warbonnet.

1791-92:          Ištá Saŋní waŋ Sihásapa Wašíču Ikčéka ktépi (Eye One-Of-Two a Sole-Black Fat-Takes Common killed-they). The French killed One-Eye, a Sihásapa (Blackfeet; one of the seven Lakota tribes).

1792-93:          Ȟaȟátȟuŋwaŋ wíŋyaŋ heyáke šá uŋ waŋ ktépi (Waterfall-Village woman dress red a killed-they). They killed an Ojibwe woman wearing a red dress.

1793-94:          Ȟewáktokta nakúŋ Pȟadáni nakúŋ Miwátani ób kičhízapi, Wakpá Wašté éd, iyúhaŋ hú ópi eyápi (Hidatsa and Arikara and Mandan with fight-they, River Good at, everyone leg wounded say-they). They say they fought with the Hidatsa, Arikara, and Mandan at the Good River (presently the Cheyenne River), and everyone’s leg was wounded.

1794-95:          Šiyótȟaŋka Yuhá waŋ ahí ktépi (Flute Has a came-here killed-they). They came and killed Flute-Owner.

1795-96:          Ȟewáktokta nakúŋ Pȟadáni ób kičhízapi. Istó ópi eyápi. (Hidatsa and Arikara with fought-they. Arm wounded said-they). They say they fought with the Hidatsa and Arikara and everyone’s arms were wounded.

1796-97:          Wówapi waŋ makȟá kawíŋȟ hiyáyapi (Flag/book a earth to-turn-around came-and-passed-along-they). They brought a flag around the country. The image for this year is the British Union Jack flag.

1797-98:          Omáha yamní ktépi (Omaha three killed-they). They killed three Omaha.

1798-99:          Šuŋg pȟehíŋ tȟáŋka yedó (Horse mane big it-is-so). There was a horse with a big mane.

1799-1800:      Čhápa othí mníyaweyapi (Beaver dwelling water-found-they). They found water in a beaver’s den. 

1800-01:          Wičháȟaŋȟaŋ (Man-full-of-scabby-sores). Smallpox.

1801-02:          Šuŋgníni óta áwičakdipi (Horse-wild many captured-return-they). They returned with wild horses.

1802-03:          Šuŋg’ğúğuna áwičakdipi (Horse-curly-hair captured-return-they). They returned with curly-haired horses.

1803-04:          Šaké máza áwičakdipi (Hoof iron captured-return-they). They returned with iron shod horse/s.

1804-05:          Tȟasíŋte uŋ akíčhidowaŋpi (Their-tail using together-with-song-they). They sang in praise of one another using horse tails.

1805-06:          Šakdóğaŋ ahí wičáktepi (Eight came-here men-killed-they). They came and killed eight of them.

1806-07:          Tuŋwéya waŋ ktépi (Scout the killed-they). They killed a scout.

1807-08:          Napsíoȟdi mázazi tȟoká uŋ waŋ ktépi (Ring iron-yellow first wear a killed-they). They killed a man who was the first to wear brass rings.
             
1808-09:          Paháta í waŋ ktépi (To-the-hill on-account-of the killed they). They killed a man who went to the hill.

1809-10:          WíyakA tȟó ótapi iyéyapi waníyetu (Feather blue many-they found-they winter). That winter they found many blue feathers.

1810-11:          Wi’akhíniča pedó (Woman-to-have-a-dispute-over they-did). They had a dispute over a woman.

1811-12:          Šúŋkawakȟaŋ ská šuŋksímaza yuhá waŋ iyéyapi (Horse white hooves-iron had the found-they). They found a white horse wearing horseshoes.

1812-13:          Matȟó Čík’ada ahí ktépi (Bear Little came-here killed-they). They came and killed Little Bear.

1813-14:          Šákpe wičáktepi waníyetu kiŋ (Six them-killed-they winter the). They killed six that winter.

1814-15:          Thítȟuŋwaŋ ka Ȟewáktokta ób kičhízapi na nakúŋ Thítȟuŋwaŋ čhehúpa ópi (Teton there Hidatsa with fight-they and also Teton jaw wound). The Teton fought the Hidatsa and a Lakota was shot in the jaw.

1815-16:          Núŋpa wakté akdí (Two to-have-killed-in-battle return). He returned with two war honors.

1816-17:          Pté sáŋ waŋ unktépi (Bison-cow creamy-white we-killed-they). They killed a white bison cow.

1817-18:          Pȟeháŋ Tȟó pȟá dúta waŋ yáŋkapi (Heron Blue head red look sat-they). They saw a blue crane with a red head.

1818-19:          Makȟóšiča Našdí (Across-the-country-bad to-have-pustules). An epidemic of measles.

1819-20:          Čhozé čhaŋpúpuŋ uŋ thikáğA (Čhozé [Joseph] wood-dry/rotten live to-pitch-a-lodge). A man they called Čhozé [Joseph] built a cabin using dry-rotted wood.

1820-21:          Kȟaŋğí óta t’Ápi (Crow many died-they). Many crows died.

1821-22:          Wičháȟpi waŋ hotȟúŋ hiyáyA (Star a cried-out pass-by). A star cried out as it passed by.

1822-23:          Ȟewáktokta yámni wátamahE wičáktepi (Hidatsa three in-a-boat them-killed-they). They killed three Hidatsa in a boat.

1823-24:          Wahúwapa šéča ȟápi waníyetu kiŋ (Ears-of-corn dried bury-they winter the). That winter they cached parched ears of corn.

1824-25:          Ȟaȟátȟuŋwaŋ ób kičhízapi. Čhaŋkáškapi yuȟdéčapi ([Water] Fall-dwellers with fight-they. Fence-fortification to-tear-apart-they). They fought with the Chippewa. They tore their palisades to pieces.

1825-26:          Mní wičhát’E (Water many-dead). Dead bodies in the water.

1826-27:          Máğana iwáktekdi kiŋ (Garden [Little] returned-victorious-having-done-killing-in-battle the). Little Garden returned with war honors.

1827-28:          Wičháakiȟ’aŋ na wičháša čheȟpí yútA, Isáŋyathi (Starvation and people flesh to-eat-something, Santee). In their desperate hunger, the Santee ate their own.

1828-29:          Ógde Dúta, Pȟadáni, ktépi (Red Shirt, an Arikara, was killed).

1829-30:          Makhú Šá čhaŋkáğa thípi káğA Hiŋháŋ Wakpá éd (Breast-bone Red trimmed-logs lodge to-build Owl River at). Red Breast built a cabin on Owl River (Moreau River).

1830-31:          Wónase adówaŋpi kiŋ (Bison-Chase/Hunt Singing-for-they the). They sang for Buffalo Chase.

1831-32:          Pȟadáni ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Šagdóğaŋ wičáktepi. (Arikara with fight-they the. Eight them-killed-they). They fought with the Arikara. The Arikara killed eight of the Dakȟóta.

1832-33:          Hú KsahÁŋ mníwakȟaŋ iyéya na yatkáŋyaŋ t’Á (Leg Broken/Severed water-with-energy to-do-suddenly and drinking died). Broken Leg found whiskey and died drinking it.

1833-34:          Wičháȟpi hiŋȟpáya (Star-Nation to-fall-down). The stars fell down.

1834-35:          Matȟó kičhí waníthipi, Čhaŋté Wakpá éd (Bear with winter-camp, Heart River at). They made winter camp with a bear, at Heart River.

1835-36:          Wičhíyena óta wičhákasotapi waníyetu (Wičhíyena many massacre-they winter). Many Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna (Yanktonai) were massacred that winter.

1836-37:          Wapȟáha Iyúsdohetoŋ waníyetu, Pȟadáni Wakpá éd (Warbonnet Trailing-tail winter, Arikara River at). Warbonnet with trailer winter, at Grand River.

1837-38:          Wičháȟaŋȟaŋ (Smallpox). Smallpox.

1838-39:          Pȟóžaŋžaŋ pté sáŋ kté (To-sniff-as-an-animal-does-the-wind female-bison creamy-white killed). Sniffer killed a white bison cow.

1839-40:          Ištá Máza ktépi, Waáŋataŋ (Eye/s Iron killed-they, He-Rushes-To-Attack). They killed Iron Eyes, The Charger.

1840-41:          Tȟámina Wé iwáktekdi kiŋ, Pȟadáni (His-Knife Blood returned-with-war-honors the, Arikara). His Bloody Knife returned with war honors against the Arikara.

1841-42:          Psaóhaŋpi (Snowshoes).

1842-43:          Tȟatȟáŋka Oyé Wakȟáŋ t’Á. Wakhéya kdézena uŋ wičháknakapi. (Bison-Bull Tracks With-Energy died. Lodge striped using above-the-ground [buried]-they). Holy Buffalo Tracks dies. They laid him to rest in a striped thípi.

1843-44:          Dé thiyópa šá othí pté akhú (This lodge-door red to-dwell bison brought-home).  A red thípi door brought the bison.

1844-45:          Makȟóšiča Nawíčašdi (Epidemic measles). There was an epidemic of measles.

1845-46:          Pȟadáni Waȟpé Šá, Wičhíyena, čhaŋkpé ópi (Arikara Leaf Red, Wičhíyena, Knee wound/shot). An Arikara wounded an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna named Red Leaf in the knee.

1846-47:          Tȟatȟáŋka Pȟá ištíŋmA t’Á (Bison-bull Head sleep died). Bull Head died in his sleep. This was the father of Lt. Henry Bullhead who killed Sitting Bull.

1847-48:          Ȟaŋtéčhaŋ Wakpá na Píğa Wakpá ožáte éd waníthipi. Wašíču wiínaȟbe kičhí waníthi. (Cedar Creek and Boiling Creek forks at winter-camp-they. Takes-The-Fat seducer-of-women with winter-camp). They established winter camp where the Cedar River and Boiling River converge. A white man, a seducer of women, camped the winter with them.

1848-49:          Pȟadáni na Wičhíyena kičhí čhapȟápi (Arikara and Wičhíyena with stabbed-they). An Arikara and an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna stabbed each other.

1849-50:          Wakíŋyaŋ Yuhá, Wičhíyena, čhaŋkȟáğathipi mahé t’Á (Thunder Has, Wičhíyena, wood-cut-lodge inside died). Has Thunder, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna, died in a log cabin.

1850-51:          Wópȟetȟuŋ waŋ Wičhíyena ópi. Matȟó Núŋpa thíŋktes’a t’eyÁ (Trader a Wičhíyena wound. Bear Two murderer-would-be caused-to-die). An Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna wounds a trader. Two Bear puts the would-be murderer to death.

1851-52:          Heȟáka Dúta kičhí waníthipi, Pȟadáni (Elk Red with winter-camp, Arikara). Red Elk, an Arikara, camped with them that winter.

1852-53:          Psaóhaŋpi (Snowshoes). Snowshoes.

1853-54:          Hé Tópa uŋ waŋ ktépi (Horn/s Four wearing a killed-they). They killed a man wearing a headdress with four horns.

1854-55:          Wičhíyena Hóhe ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Makȟá Sáŋ Wakpá éd. WahíŋtkA ktépi. (Wičhíyena Assiniboine with fight-they the. Earth Creamy-White River at. Scraper killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought with the Assiniboine. They were at White Earth River. They killed Scraper.

1855-56:          Phuthíŋ Ská wawáhoye kiŋ (Beard White to-order-things the). White Beard [General William Harney] gave the order.

They were at Čhúŋaške (Fort Pierre) that winter. White Beard called a council and treated with them. They wintered with him.

1856-57:          Wičhíyena Hóhe ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Mníyaye Zí ktépi (Wičhíyena Assiniboine with fight-they the. Water-carrier Yellow killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought with the Assiniboine. They killed Yellow Water-Carrier.

1857-58:          Tȟóka, Pȟadáni Miwátani Ȟewáktokta, Wičhíyena ób kičhízapi. Wičhíyena šákpe ktépi (Enemy, Arikara Mandan Hidatsa, Wičhíyena with fight-they. Wičhíyena six killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought against the enemy force of Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa. They killed six Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna.

1858-59:          Waŋbdí Hoȟpí t’Á (Eagle Nest died). Eagle Nest died.

1859-60:          Šúŋka HáŋskA ktépi (Dog Long killed-they). They killed Long Dog.

1860-61:          Tȟaŋčháŋ WíyakA YukȟÁŋ, Wičhíyena, čhuwíta t’Á (Body Feather To-Be, Wičhíyena, to-be-cold die). Feather On His Body, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna, died from the cold.

1861-62:          Čhaŋté Wakpá othípi (Heart River to-camp-they). They camped at Heart River.

1862-63:          Hóhe wikčémna núŋpa wičáktepi (Assiniboine ten two them-killed-they). They killed twenty Assiniboine.

1863-64:          Akíčhita Pȟá Tȟáŋka kaškápi. Kdí na t’Á (Soldier/s Head Big imprisoned. Return and die). Soldiers imprisoned Big Head. He returned and died.

1864-65:          Tȟáȟča Óta ahí wóokhiye káğA (Deer Many came-here peace to-make). Many Deer (Gen. Henry Maynadier) came and made peace.

Blue Thunder: Soldiers made camp [Fort Rice, ND] to made a treaty with the Wičhíyena but  the Wičhíyena ran off and the soldiers took three of them as prisoners. Their leader, IyÁ Wičákȟa (The One Who Speaks The Truth), the father of Two Bear, was among the three.

1865-66:          Pȟatkâša Pȟá čhapȟÁ t’ekíyA (Jugular-vein-scarlet Head [Western Painted Turtle] stab to-cause-one’s-own-death). Turtle Head was stabbed to death.

Blue Thunder: They were camping at Kaȟmíčhiŋka (River Bends Back Upon Itself; Big Bend, SD).

1866-67:          Phizí čhapȟápi (Gall stabbed-they). They stabbed Gall.

Blue Thunder: Phizí tried to make peace at Fort Rice [Berthold], but soldiers stabbed him, twice in the body and once in the neck. He had not done anything bad. He and Grass (Matȟó Watȟákpe; Charging Bear) went there together to talk with the head soldier (Capt. Adams Bassett).

1867-68:          Čháŋ Ičú čhiŋkšítku núŋpapi čhuwíta t’ápi. Waníyetu osní. (Wood Takes son/s two-they to-be-cold died-they. Winter cold.)  He Takes Wood and his two sons froze to death. The winter was cold.

1868-69:          Máni Dúta, Šinásapa, ahí wóokhiye káğA (Walk Red, Robe-black, came-here peace to-make). Fr. De Smet, a Jesuit (Black Robe), came to make peace with Walks In Red (Gall).

Blue Thunder: Fr. De Smet, a Catholic priest, came to make a treaty with the Thítȟuŋwaŋ. Blue Thunder brought twenty Húŋkphapȟa under Gall to Fort Rice to entice them to sign the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868. When they arrived at Fort Rice, the soldiers took Gall prisoner then let word spread that they were going to hang him. Two Bear protested. The soldiers stripped Gall then beat him before releasing him. The Thítȟuŋwaŋ were angered at this. There would be no peace, nor trust.

1869-70:          Núŋpa čhaŋ mnayáŋpi wičáktepi, Pȟadáni (Two wood gathering killed-they, Arikara). They killed an Arikara couple who were out gathering wood.

1870-71:          Šúŋkawakȟaŋ óta mní t’ápi. Šúŋkawakȟaŋ wičhóthi okáwiŋȟ khuwápi. (Horse many water died-they. Horse camp-around chased-they.) Many horses drowned. They chased horses around the camp.

Blue Thunder: Winter camp at Pȟadáni Wakpá (Grand River). A flood drowned many horses which were tied to the trees for shelter that night.
Blue Thunder variants I-III: At Grand River. Many horses died in a flood. The Húŋkphápȟa were camping between the Rosebud River and Fast Horse Creek. The Crow came and stole nearly all the horses. They chased the horses through the camp.

1871-72:          Wašíču waŋ Nasú ikčéka kté (Takes-The-Fat a Brain common killed). Brain, a Lakȟóta, killed a white man.

Blue Thunder variants I-III: A Dakȟóta they called Brain killed a white man. The Blue Thunder winter count and variants I-III all depict a man dressed as a white man, but with long hair, and wearing a wawóslata wanáp’iŋ (a hair-pipe breastplate), with an arrow in his side.

1872-73:          Túwe Tȟatȟáŋka Nážiŋ kté (Someone Bison-Bull Stand kill). Someone killed Standing Buffalo (Bull).

1873-74:          Hokšída Akíčhita, Ziŋtkáda ŠíčA, tuŋwéya Dakȟóta waŋ wašíču ikčéka ktépi, Psíŋ Otȟúŋwahe éd (Boy Soldier, Bird Bad, scout Dakȟóta a Takes-The-Fat common killed-they, Wild-Rice Village at). Soldier boy, Bad Bird, Dakȟóta scout was killed by the whites, at Wild Rice Village (Fort Rice, DT).

Blue Thunder: The whites killed Bad Bird, a Dakȟóta scout.
Blue Thunder winter count and variants II & III: Bad Bird is depicted wearing a hat with his name, a black bird, above his head. In the variant I, he is depicted wearing a small feather “dream headdress” upon the back of his head.

1874-75:          Ité Omáğažu kaškápi, Čhanté Wakpá Akíčhita Otȟúŋwahe éd (Face It-Rains-Into imprison-they, Heart River Soldier Camp at). Rain In The Face was imprisoned at Fort Abraham Lincoln, DT.

1875-76:          Mníwakȟáŋ Iyéyapi (Water-with-energy [whiskey] found-they). They found whisky.

Blue Thunder: They found a keg of whiskey near the shore at Íŋyaŋ Bosdáta Akíčhita Otȟúŋwahe (Standing Rock Soldier Village; Fort Yates, DT). They had a council and drank it all up.

1876-77:          Šuŋk’akaŋyaŋkapi akíčhita tȟašúŋkawakȟaŋpi oyás’iŋ waíč’iyápi (Horse-riding-they soldiers horses-belonging-to-them all-of-a-kind to-take-things-they). The cavalry took all their horses.

Blue Thunder and all the variants: Horse soldiers confiscated all of their horses at Fort Yates. This was in retaliation for the loss of General Custer and the 7th Cavalry the previous summer.

1877-78:          Matȟó Tȟamáheča čhaŋkȟáğathipi mahéd t’Á (Bear Lean log-lodge inside died). Lean Bear died in a log cabin.

1877-78:          Matȟó Núŋpa t’Á (Bear Two died). Chief Two Bear died.

1878-79:          GnaškíŋyAŋ Máni wayázaŋ (To-Be-Raging-Mad/Crazy Walk to-be-sick). Crazy Walker was sick.
           
Blue Thunder variant: Crazy Walker was so sick they carried him in a blanket to another lodge. He got well again.

1879-80:          Pȟá ȞuğáhAŋ wakȟáŋ wóhaŋpi káğA (Head Dented/Broken-Into with-energy feast-they to-make). Broken Head made a sacred feast that winter.

1880-81:          Itázipa Dúta iná t’Á (Bow Red mother died). Red Bow’s mother died.

1881-82:          Ziŋtkáda Čík’ada uŋgnúhaŋna t’Á (Bird Little suddenly/unexpectedly died). Little Bird died suddenly.

1882-83:          Tȟatȟáŋka Dúta t’Á (Bison-Bull Red died). Red Bull died.

1884-85:          Wasú Dúta čhuŋwíŋtku t’Á (Hail Red daughter died). Red Hail’s daughter died.

1885-86:          Hé Núŋpa WaníčA wakȟáŋ wóhaŋpi tȟáŋka káğA (Horn Two There-Is-None with-energy feast big to-make). No Two Horns made a large ceremonial feast.
           
No Two Horns made a big feast in the winter in memory of his sister who had passed away the previous summer.

1886-87:          Matȟó Núŋpa huŋká waŋžítku t’Á, Čhečá Yámni ečíyapi (Bear Two ceremoniously-adopted one-his died, Thighs Three name-they). Two Bear’s ceremonially adopted brother, whom they called Three Thighs, died.

1887-88:          Matȟó Witkó wačhípi thitȟáŋka othí (Bear Crazy/Foolish dance-they lodge-big dwell). Fool Bear held a dance in a large lodge where he dwelt.

1888-89:          Šaké Waŋblí kaškápi t’Á (Claw Eagle imprisoned died). Eagle Claw died in captivity.
           
No Two Horns says this was in Fort Yates, DT; Blue Thunder says this was in Mandan, DT. Both No Two Horns and Blue Thunder list an alternate name of Frosted Red Fish for Eagle Claw.

1889-90:          Wáğačhaŋ, Wičhíyena itȟáŋčhaŋ t’Á (Cottonwood, Wičhíyena chief died). Cottowood, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna chief, died.

1890-91:          Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake ktépi (Bison-Bull Sitting-Down killed they). They killed Sitting Bull.

1891-92:          Mázaska yámni waŋžígži wičhák’u (Iron-white three each-one-apiece them-give). $3.00 to each person.

1892-93:          Šúŋkawakȟaŋ khí mázaska wikčémna tópa otóiyohi (Horse take-away iron-white ten four each-and-every-one). $40.00 for each horse taken away.

1893-94:          Mázaska hokšída šuŋg’yúslohAŋ t’Á (“Money” boy horse-drag-along die).
A boy was dragged to death by a horse at the Mandan Rodeo. His name was Mázaska (Silver or “Money”). He was twelve years old.

1894-95:          Wakhéya Áya t’Á (Tent To-There-From-Here died). Carries The Lodge died.

1895-96:          Tȟáisto KsÁ t’Á (His-Arm Cut-Off died). His Arm Cut Off  (H.S. Parkins) died.

1896-97:          PažípA t’Á. Pȟá Tȟáŋka čhiŋkšítku. (To-Sting died. Head Big son.) To-Sting died. He was Big Head’s son.

1897-98:          Nağí Wakȟáŋ t’Á (Soul With-Energy died). Holy Soul died.

1898-99:          Matȟó Héya t’Á (Bear Louse died). Louse Bear died.

1899-1900:      Matȟó Ȟotá tȟabkápsičapi t’Á. Mandan Fair éd. (Bear Grey to-strike-a-ball-with-a-bat-they died. Mandan Fair at.) Grey Bear died playing shinny. At the Mandan Fair.

1900-01:          Wapȟáha Wašté owíŋža mahé ğú (Warbonnet Good/Pretty bed in burn). Pretty Warbonnet was burned in bed.

1901-02:          Wapȟóštaŋ t’Á. (To-put-something-on-one’s-head died). Hat died.
                        Hat, a policeman, died.

1902-03:          Matȟó Ȟóta úŋtȟuŋ, hú kašúžA, hú ksÁ, t’Á (Bear Grey injure, leg broke, leg cut-off, died). Grey Bear’s injury was a broken leg, which was removed, then he died.

1903-04:          Šúŋka Čík’ada t’á (Dog Little died). Little Dog died.

1904-05:          Waŋbdí Ská t’á (Eagle White died). White Eagle died.

1905-06:          Matȟó SápA ktépi (Bear Black killed-they). Black Bear was killed.

1906-07:          Joe Tomahawk ič’ikte (Joe Tomahawk to-kill-oneself). Joe Tomahawk committed suicide.

1907-08:          Makȟá Wiŋ t’Á (Earth Woman died). Earth Woman died.

1908-09:          Matȟó Núŋpa iná t’Á (Bear Two mother died). Two Bear’s mother died.

1909-10:          Maȟpíya Kiŋy'Aŋ kaškA, Akíčita Háŋska Otȟúŋwahe éd (Cloud Flying imprison, Soldier Long Village at). Flying Cloud was imprisoned at Fort Yates.

1910-11:          Matȟó Waŋkátuya t’Á (Bear On-High died). High Bear died.

1911-12:          Matȟó Čhuwíyuksa t’Á (Bear From-The-Waist-Up died). Half Body Bear [Bear Vest?] died. He was known in English as Bear Coat.

1912-13:          Šúŋka Dúta tȟawíča t’Á (Dog Red his-wife died). Red Dog’s wife died.

1913-14:          Akíčita huŋkádowaŋpi waníyetu (Soldier to-have-for-a-relative-singing-over-they winter). That winter they adopted a soldier (Col. A.B. Welch).

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