Friday, January 8, 2016

The Chandler-Pohrt Winter Count

The Chandler-Pohrt Winter Count (above) is housed at the Detroit Institute of Arts. It was created by an unknown artist at the beginning of the reservation era in North Dakota. Image courtesy of the Detroit Institute of Arts
Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna Dakȟóta Waníyetu Wówapi
The Chandler-Pohrt Winter Count Revisited
Edited by Dakota Wind
Fort Totten, N.D. – The Chandler-Pohrt Winter Count was acquired by Mr. Milford G. Chandler in the 1930s on the Spirit Lake Nation Reservation (formerly the Devils Lake Sioux Indian Reservation). The keeper of this winter count is unknown. This particular winter count contains events that relate mostly to the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna Dakȟóta (Yanktonai) and the Huŋkphápȟa Lakȟóta peoples from 1823 to 1919.

Today, the Spirit Lake Nation is made up of some Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ (Yankton) and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna who were invited onto the reservation some years following the 1863 Sibley Punitive Campaign, but is mostly comprised of Sisíthuŋwaŋ (Sisseton), and Waȟpêthuŋwaŋ (Wahpeton) Dakȟóta people for whom the reservation was founded.

In 1998, Dr. Linea Sundstrom rendered an interpretation of the Chandler-Pohrt Winter Count. Her interpretation is currently online on the St. Francis Indian Mission website. It is re-transcribed here as follows: the year, the first line of text is as it was recorded using Missionary Dakota, the Missionary Dakota re-written using the Lakota Language Consortium standard orthography, a word for word translation, a free translation, and then any additional information or commentary.

1823
Wahuwas·eca ih·anpi.
Wahúwas ečhá iȟápi.
Ear-Of-Corn deliberately to-bury-something-they.
They cached ears of corn.

This year’s event refers to the Arikara War of 1823, in which Colonel Leavenworth led the Missouri Legion (soldiers, artillery, and even the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna and Thítȟuŋwaŋ) in the first ever US punitive military campaign against a Plains Indian tribe, the Arikara.

About 700-750 of the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ fought under Leavenworth’s command in this Missouri Legion. At the end of the campaign, when the Arikara were utterly defeated and chased out of their villages, their fields of corn were seized by the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ for their use[1].

1824 
Wah·pes·a conkas·ke kii.
Waȟpé Šá čhúŋkaške khí.
Leaf Red Fence/Fortification to-take-away-something-from-somebody.
Red Leaf took a fort.

Red Leaf, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna chief, is mentioned in the Blue Thunder Winter Count in the entry for 1845 when he was injured in a fight with an Arikara.

1825 Miniwicata.
Mní wičhát’A.
Water many-died.
Many drowned.

This was at Horse Head Bottom, also known as Gayton’s Crossing[2].

They were camping on the bottomlands of the Mníšoše that spring when an unprecedented rise of water quickly drowned over one half of the people. They say that this happened on the east bank of the river, opposite of the mouth of the Cannonball River. The Dakȟóta call this place Étu Pȟá Šuŋg t’Á (Lit. Place Head Horse Dead; Dead Horse Head Point) because, following the flood, the shore was lined with dead horse heads. They had corralled their horses for the night and nearly all were drowned but for a few[3].

Howard’s interpretation of this event mentions that over one-half of the people drowned[4]. Howard’s informant, Mr. Pete Big eagle, places this event not in North Dakota, but instead at White Swan Creek located near present-day Pickstown, SD on the Yankton Indian Reservation[5].

1826
Tas·pan ojued wanitipi.
Tȟaspáŋ Ožú éd waníthipi.
Apple To-Plant-Something at winter-camp.
They established winter camp at Apple Orchard.

Apple Orchard, or Apple Creek is located around present-day Bismarck, ND area. The creek is known as Tȟaspáŋla Wakpála (Lit. “Little Apple Creek”) for the wild Hawthorn trees. The fruit, or thornapple, are called tȟaspáŋla, which means “little apple.”

The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna returned to Tȟaspáŋ Ožú time and again. It was a favorite place to winter, specifically mentioned in 1777, 1826, and 1861 for that purpose[6].

1827 
Isanyati akikantapi.
Isáŋyathi akíȟ’aŋt’api.
Santee to-die-of-starvation-them.
Many of the Eastern Dakota died of starvation.

1828 
Kiyahiyaze istasapi kici kicio.
Khiyé ahí yazé istášapi kičhí kíčio
Near to-come-here to-pull-with-the-teeth arm-red-they with to-shoot-and-hit-something-for-someone.
Someone close came, fought hand-to-hand, was wounded, and shot.

The pictograph for this year indicates that the wounded one’s name is possibly Ziŋtkála SápA (Lit. “Black Bird”), as evidenced by a rather plain black bird flying above him. The Mnikȟówožu winter counts Bush, Lone Dog, and Swan, along with the Sa’úŋ (northern Thítȟuŋwaŋ - Teton - Lakȟóta, in this case, the Itázipčho and Oóhenuŋpa) winter count kept by The Flame, all refer to a fight this year involving a man named Dead Arm who was stabbed in the arm by a Mandan Indian.

1829 
Kanpi kicitipi.
Kánapi kičhí thípi.
Way-over-there-them with reside-there-they.
They camped with them way over there.

The traditional territory of the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ (Yankton) and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna (Yanktonai) lay between the Mníšoše (The Water-Astir; “Missouri River”) and the Čhaŋsáŋsaŋ Wakpá (White Birch River; “James River”) in present day North Dakota and South Dakota. The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna dwelt north of the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ. Their northern most territory boundary lay from the mouth of the Čháŋté Wakpá (Heart River) and Mní Wakȟáŋ (Spirit Lake).

The image suggests that the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna travelled far to trade with a trader (the cabin) and wintered there with him (the thípi next to the cabin).

The Mnikȟówožu were living along the Wakpá Wašté (Good River; “Cheyenne River”) at this time. The Mnikȟówožu winter counts by Lone Dog and Thin Elk recall the arrival of the trader F.A. Chardon. Chardon established a trade post on what became known as Makȟóthi Wakpála (Earthlodge Creek) at Pahá Čhaŋ Igná YaŋkÁ (Hill In The Woods) along Makhízita Wakpá (Lit. “White Dirt River;” White River)[7]. Today, Makȟóthi Wakpála is known as Makȟásaŋ Wakpála (Lit. “Creamy-White-Earth Creek;” Whiteclay Creek).

The location of Chardon’s trading post lay between the historic territories of the Mnikȟówožu and Oóhenuŋpa Lakȟóta peoples. The site of the trading post lay within the borders of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

1830
Hewatamahica wicaktepi.
Ȟewák tȟamáheča wičáktepi.
Arikara [Ȟewák being a contraction of Ȟewáktotka] lean/skinny/poor men-killed-they.
They killed some poor Arikara.

According to the Blue Thunder Winter Counts and the White Bull Winter Count the Dakȟóta fought against the Arikara; the Arikara killed eight of the Dakȟóta in the fight.

1831
Wicasa num kiciktepi.
Wičháša núm kičhí ktépi.
Man two with killed-they.
Two men killed each other.

The pictograph for this year depicts two ikčéya wičháša, two common men, indicating that it was two Dakȟóta men who were killed this year.

1832 
Titankaobdica.
Thí tȟáŋka obdéča.
Lodge big square-sides.
A big cabin.

The High Dog Winter Count recalls the year as Thí tȟáŋka obléča káğapi (Lodge big square-sides built-they), that they built a large cabin that year. It was the first time a log cabin was built by a Lakȟóta.

1833 
Wicahpi hinhpaya.
Wičháȟpi hiŋȟpáya.
Nation-star to-fall-down.
The stars fell down.

Beede’s informants told him the Lakȟóta feared that Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka (the Great Mystery) had lost control over creation[8].

1834
Mato wan kiciwanitipi.
Matȟó waŋ kičhí waníthipi.
Bear a with winter-camp.
They wintered with a bear.

Blue Thunder and No Two Horns say that the Dakȟóta camped with a bear that winter at Čháŋté Wakpá (Heart River).


1835
Iktonwanotawica kasatapi.
Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna wičhákasotapi.
Yanktonai massacre-they.
Many Yanktonai were killed [in battle].

There was a battle between the Wazíkhute (Lit. “Pine-Shooters”) band of Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna against a war party of Pȟadáni (Arikara) and Miwátani (Mandan).

The depiction of the Hupáwaheyuŋpi (Lit. “Poles Pack-things-up-to-travel”) indicates that this wasn’t a hunting expedition, but perhaps an envoy including women and even children, non-combatants, on their way to the next camp or perhaps on their way to trade or treat with another tribe.

The Cranbrook Winter Count, a Huŋkphápȟa winter count, recalls this year as the massacre of a Lakȟóta peace party. The High Dog Winter Count, generally a Huŋkphápȟa winter count but also includes Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna information, has that the dead Lakȟóta peace party members were brought back on travois. The Blue Thunder Winter Count says that twelve Dakȟóta died in this conflict. The Butterfly Winter Count, a Mandan winter count, recalls the the deaths of thirty Dakȟóta though they probably counted the ones they wounded in battle as dead.

1836
S·aketepa wokiye wicatipi.
Šaké Tópa wókhiye wičháktepi.
Hoof Four to-make-peace men-killed-they.
They killed Four Hoof a member of a peace delegation.

Only Four Hoof is identified of the two figures depicted in this year’s entry. It is possible that this year’s entry is related to the previous year in that it involved a peace delegation with either the Arikara, Mandan, and/or the Hidatsa.

1837
Wicah·anh·an tanka.
Wičáȟaŋȟaŋ tȟáŋka.
Smallpox big.
There was an epidemic of smallpox.

There was an epidemic of smallpox which struck the Upper Missouri River in 1837. It was most deadly among the sedentary tribes like the Arikara, Hidatsa, and Mandan. Nomadic tribes like the Thítȟuŋwaŋ (Lit. “Dwellers-On-The-Plains;” Teton) were not as heavily affected by the disease.

The steamboat, S.S. Saint Peter, knowingly spread the smallpox threat to all the people it came into contact, particularly the native people who had little immunity to this deadly disease. By summer’s end, all the tribes living in the Missouri River basin or nearby were affected[9].

1838
Akiwicah·anh·an.
Akhé wičáȟaŋȟaŋ.
Again smallpox.
Smallpox again.

The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna winter count by Roan Bear details that many people died from pȟózaŋ (lit. “Head-Sickness”). It is possible that this year’s entry recalls hemorrhagic smallpox, of which the first stage includes headache, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and severe muscle aches[10].

1839
Maza is·taya wanktepi.
Máza Ištáya waŋ ktépi.
Iron Eyes-In-A-State-Of the killed-they.
They killed Iron Eyes (lit. “Glasses”).

This was the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna chief otherwise known as Waáŋataŋ (lit. “He-Rushes-To-Attack;” The Charger) who was assassinated by one of his own people. He has fought in the War of 1812 as a young man, where he acquired the name “The Charger[11].” Towards the end of his life he favored wearing non-native attire, and even took to wearing green spectacles, from which his new name, “Iron Eyes,” was derived[12]. He died in the winter camp of the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna along Čhápa Wakpá (lit. “Beaver Creek”) in present-day Emmons County, N.D[13].

1840
Tamina wewe ktepi.
Tȟámina Wéwe ktépi.
His-Knife Blood-blood killed-they.
They killed His Bloody Knife.

This year refers to the Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ chief His Bloody Knife, not the Huŋkphápȟa-Pȟadáni mixed blood Bloody Knife who served in the Fort McKeen Detachment of U.S. Indian Scouts at Fort Abraham Lincoln, and who died in the Reno Fight of the Little Bighorn.

The John K. Bear Winter Count details the victorious return of His Bloody Knife[14].

Blue Thunder says: Tȟámina Wé iwáktekdi kiŋ, Pȟadáni (His-Knife Blood returned-with-war-honors the, Arikara). His Bloody Knife returned with war honors against the Arikara. This was at the mouth of the Íŋyaŋwakağapi Wakpá (Stone-Make-For-Themselves River), or Cannonball River[15].

1841
Wicas·a itancan wan ktepi.
Wičháša itȟáŋčhaŋ waŋ ktépi.
Man chief in-particular killed-they.
They killed a chief.

The High Dog Winter Count refers to the death of a Hóhe (Assiniboine) this year named Ošpúla[16] (lit. “Cuttings,” or “Leavings”).

1842
Wakeya hdezena oti wankan.
Wakhéya kdézena othí wakȟáŋ.
Lodge striped to-dwell-within with-energy.
Dwelling within a sacred striped.

The Blue Thunder Winter Count calls this year: Tȟatȟáŋka Oyé Wakȟáŋ t’Á. Wakhéya kdézena uŋ wičháknakapi. (Bison-Bull Tracks With-Energy died. Lodge striped using above-the-ground [buried]-they). Holy Buffalo Tracks dies. They laid him to rest in a striped thípi[17].

1843
Wasicun maza wadowan.
Wašíčuŋ máza wadówaŋ.
Takes-The-Fat Metal to-sing-over-someone.
Iron White Man was sung over.

The alówaŋ, or alówaŋpi, is a ceremony involving singing over individual/s and ascribing status to him/her/them. Some people are sung over, honored, for deeds which have benefited the community. A person might be sung over and formally adopted by a family.

1844
Winyan was anog·uta.
Wíŋyaŋ waŋ oná ğú t’A.
Woman in-particular prairie-fire burned died.
A woman died died of burns from a prairie fire.

The Medicine Bear Winter Counts entry for this year recalls the same incident: Wíŋyaŋ onákte (woman prairie-fire-killed). A woman died in a prairie fire[18].

1845 
Hunkawoqinyuta.
Huŋká wóniŋ yútA.
An-adopted-person sang to-eat-something.
A beggar was adopted and fed.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count entry for this year says: Huŋkádowaŋpi (Singing-over-a-relative-they). They sang over someone in ceremony and made a relative[19].

The High Dog entry for 1846 says: Tabú’bu alówaŋpi (Something-Large-And-Unknown sang-over-someone-they). They sang in honor over a man they called Something Large. This one man, entirely alone, defended the staff, the Lakȟóta flag, against great odds in combat against the Crow[20].

Rev. Eugene Beuchel’s “Lakota English Dictionary” translates Tabú’bu as “something large and big that no one ever saw,” but also describes this particular word as when children pile robes on another child so that the one child becomes something big. It may be this last that describes this one man’s battle the Crow, against great odds that none could describe, and he came out victorious[21].

James H. Howard interprets Tabú’bu as “Humpback,” and the pictograph to represent Huŋkálowaŋpi (Adopted-person-singing-over-they), in which the quirt behind one figure is taking the other figure as his relative[22].

The pictograph for this entry seems to support that this man who was adopted was indeed hunch backed. The Cranbrook Winter Count (Huŋkphápȟa) notes an adopted man was also known as His Horse Runs[23].

1846
S·unkakan hih·dokapi.
Šuŋk’ákaŋ hiŋkdókapi.
On-horseback to-suddenly-happen-as-it-were-they.
A rider unexpectedly brought horses to them.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count entry for this year says: Šuŋg’híŋzi áwičakdipi (Horse-teeth-yellow captured-return-they). They brought back horses with yellow teeth[24].

The pictograph depicts a black horse with a white face.

1847
Was·icun num wopeton yankapi.
Wašíčuŋ núm wópȟetȟuŋ yaŋkápi.
Take-the-fat two to-buy-things to-sit-they.
Two white traders sat [camped] with them.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count entry for this year says: Wašíču nuŋpá kičhí waníthi (Takes-The-Fat two with winter-camp). Two white traders camped with them that winter[25].

Blue Thunder says: Ȟaŋtéčhaŋ Wakpá na Píğa Wakpá ožáte éd waníthipi. Wašíču wiínaȟbe kičhí waníthi. (Cedar Creek and Boiling Creek forks at winter-camp-they. Takes-The-Fat seducer-of-women with winter-camp). They established winter camp where the Cedar River and Boiling River converge. A white man, a seducer of women, camped that winter with them[26].

1848
Odowan wanji kicikici kte.
Odówaŋ waŋží kičhíkičhi kté.
Song One to-one-another killed.
One Song and another killed each other.

Medicine Bear says: Kičhí ktépi (Each-other killed-they). They killed each other[27].

Blue Thunder says: Pȟadáni na Wičhíyena kičhí čhapȟápi (Arikara and Wičhíyena with stabbed-they). An Arikara and an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna stabbed each other[28].

The pictograph for this entry shows men with rifles, not knives.

1849
Titanka osniyata.
Thí tȟáŋka osníyata.
Lodge big cold-at/in-[the].
A big cabin when it was cold.

Medicine Bear says: WatȟókhiyopȟeyA čhúŋkaške éd waníthipi (To-Trade fort at winter-camp). They wintered at a trading post[29].

Blue Thunder says: Wakíŋyaŋ Yuhá, Wičhíyena, čhaŋkȟáğathipi mahé t’Á (Thunder Has, Wičhíyena, wood-cut-lodge inside died). Has Thunder, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna, died in a log cabin[30].

1850
Witkonasa was·icun wan kte.
Witkó NasÁ wašíčuŋ waŋ kté.
Crazy To-chase-large-game-in-a-communal-hunt take-the-fat a killed.
Crazy Chase Hunter killed a white man.

Blue Thunder says: Wópȟetȟuŋ waŋ Wičhíyena ópi. Matȟó Núŋpa thíŋktes’a t’eyÁ (Trader a Wičhíyena wound. Bear Two murderer-would-be caused-to-die). An Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna stabbed a trader. Two Bear puts the would-be murderer to death. This happened at a camp below present-day Mandan, ND[31].

No Two Horns says: a Dakȟóta man shot/killed a white man with an arrow[32].

The entry for this year depicts a Dakȟóta shooting a trader [figure with a hat] in the back with his bow and arrow.

1851
Heh·aka duta kici wanitipi.
Heȟáka dúta kičhí waníthipi.
Bull-Elk Red with winter-camp.
Red Elk wintered with them.

Blue Thunder says that Red Elk was an Arikara. This was at Mní Nažúŋspe KawéğA (lit. “Water Axe Broken”), Broke Axe Lake, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna campsite located near present-day Washburn, ND[33].

Broke Axe Lake is what is commonly known as an “oxbow lake,” a former channel of the Missouri River. The name fell out of disuse and the site is now known as Painted Woods, whose name is derived from a tragic love story between a Mandan maiden and an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna brave[34].

1852
Matowas·te pte hiko.
Matȟó Wašté ptehíko.
Bear Good bison-to-attract.
Good Bear called the bison. 

Medicine Bear says: Matȟó Wašté ečíyapi ptehíko (Bear Good called-them-by-name bison-to-attract). Good Bear called the bison[35].

Blue Thunder’s entry for this year simply says: Psaóhaŋpi (Snowshoes). Blue Thunder and the variants say that they wintered at a site east of Fort Berthold, a place called either “Corn Hill” or “Cave Hill.” They also hunted many bison that winter[36]. Many winter counts recite a hard or difficult winter.

Another possible name of this site is a “coal hill,” where small strip mines later removed the deposit, which is about six miles east of old Fort Berthold, nearly halfway between old Fort Berthold and Fort Stevenson[37].

1853 Hetopa wan ktepi.
Hé Tópa waŋ ktépi
Horn Four the killed-they.
They killed Four Horns.

Blue Thunder says: Hé tópa uŋ waŋ ktépi (Horn/s Four wearing a killed-they). They killed a man wearing a headdress with four horns. According to Blue Thunder, a lone Crow warrior wearing a four-horned headdress charged into a Lakȟóta war party and died a glorious death at Čhaȟlí Wakpá. Afterward, all the warriors who had participated in this fight took to wearing four-horned headdresses in memory of the Crow’s bravery and his last fight[38].

1854
Osnikicizapi.
Osní kičhízapi.
Cold battle-they.
They had a battle that winter.

Medicine Bear says: Waníyetu kičhízapi (Winter fight-they). They had a fight that winter[39].

Blue Thunder says: Wičhíyena Hóhe ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Makȟá Sáŋ Wakpá éd. WahíŋtkA ktépi. (Wičhíyena Assiniboine with fight-they the. Earth Creamy-White River at. Scraper killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought with the Assiniboine. They were at White Earth River. They killed Scraper. Blue Thunder further says that this was at Fort Berthold[40].

1855
Putihinska waaks·ija.
Phuthíŋ Ská waáŋkičiya.
Beard White cared-for-with-them.
They took care of White Beard.

High Dog says: This was Gen. Harney who went to make peace with the Oóhenuŋpa (Two Kettle), Húŋkpathi (Lower Yankton), Huŋkphápȟa, Sihásapa (Black-Soled Moccasins; Blackfeet Lakȟóta), Mnikȟówožu (Planters By The Stream), Itázipčho (Without-Bows; Sans Arc), Iháŋktȟuŋwanŋa, and Sičháŋğu (Burnt-Thigh; Brule), in March, 1856, so that settlers on the Oregon Trail might pass by unperturbed[41].

Medicine Bear says: Phuthíŋ Ská wawáhoye kiŋ (Beard White to-order-things the). White Beard [General William Harney] gave the order[42].

Blue Thunder says: Phuthíŋ Ská wawáhoye kiŋ (Beard White to-order-things the). White Beard [General William Harney] gave the order. They were at Čhúŋaške (Fort Pierre) that winter. White Beard called a council and treated with them. They wintered with him[43].

1856
Kangi wicas·an wan wapaha aykusapi.
Kȟaŋğí wičháša waŋ wapȟáha ayúk’ezapi.
Crow man/men the warbonnet on-something-to-shear-off-they.
They sheared a Crow man’s warbonnet [off his head].

The High Dog Winter Count says that it was Good Bear who tore a shaved horn warbonnet from the Crow[44].

The Cranbrook Winter Count says that a war party of about 100 went into Crow territory to steal horses. The Crow spotted them, followed, and overtook them, forcing the Huŋkphápȟa into a fight. In one of the charges, a Lakȟóta grabbed a Crow’s warbonnet by its long tail. The warbonnet came apart in his hands[45].

1857
Tatanka Iyotanke wayaka akdipi.
Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake wayáka akdípi.
Bison-Bull Sitting-Down prisoner return-they.
Sitting Bull and his war party returned with a prisoner.

Blue Thunder says: Wičhíyena Hóhe ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Mníyaye Zí ktépi (Wičhíyena Assiniboine with fight-they the. Water-carrier Yellow killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought with the Assiniboine. They killed Yellow Water-Carrier[46].

High Dog says: Áta ktépi aglípi (Entire killed-they returned-they). They returned having killed all of them. The pictograph indicates that they killed the entire enemy war party, and counted coup three times[47].

Medicine Bear says: Tȟatȟáŋka Ináži wiŋyáŋ áwičakdi (Bison-[Bull] Standing woman captured-returned-with). Standing Bull brought back a captive woman[48].

The Cranbrook Winter Count says that a little enemy boy was killed. Praus’ notes on the Cranbrook Winter Count says that this year’s event refers to a raid on an Assiniboine camp where Sitting Bull and his war party killed an entire family, all but one, who was captured and later adopted by Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull gave his misúŋkala (younger brother) the name Tȟatȟáŋka PsíčA (lit. “Bison-Bull To-Jump;” Jumping Bull). Jumping Bull died in Sitting Bull’s camp on the Grand River in the fight against the BIA police when they came to arrest his čhiyé (older brother), December 1890[49].

1858
Wanbdihoh·pita.
Waŋbdí Hoȟpí t’Á.
Eagle Nest died.
Eagle Nest died.

Blue Thunder says Eagle Nest died of no sickness[50].

1859
Was·na ota.
Wasná óta.
Pemmican to-be-much.
There was much pemmican.

Medicine Bear says: Wókapȟaŋ paŋȟya (lit. “meat-block very-much”). There was very much meat prepared[51].

This year’s entry is depicted by a lodge, representing camp, with four thick lines on the side, representing representing wókapȟaŋ (meat blocks) or wakápȟapi (pounded meat). 

1860
Canhuta oqapi.
Čhaŋhúta Očhápi.
Stump into-dig-up-as-by-stabbing.
Dug Up A stump.

Medicine Bear says: Šuŋkawakȟaŋ óta áwičakdipi (lit. “Horses many captured-returned-with”). They returned with many captured horses[52].

High Dog says: Kaȟníȟniȟ siŋtéyapi (Choose-selectively tail-to-have-for-they). They carefully chose a [horse] tail for themselves[53]. Ten race horses were killed. A tail was carefully selected and a Tȟáwa Šúŋkawakȟaŋ Ópi Wokíksuye, or Horse Memorial Stick (commonly called “Horse Sticks) was created[54].

The Cranbrook Winter Count and the Mnikȟówožu Winter Count (White Bull) say that choice horses were killed. Praus’ notes in the Cranbrook Winter Count says that the best horse of Kȟaŋğí YatáŋpikA (lit. “Crow One-Who-Is-Highly-Praised”), or Crow King (a Huŋkphápȟa chief), was killed by an arrow. Overnight, all the best horses in camp were killed and the group scattered[55].

This year’s entry is depicted by eight horse tracks that seemingly has nothing to do with the accompanying text for the same year. The interpretation for this year would seem to be that it was ‘Stump’s horses that were killed. Perhaps it was later realized that it was ‘Stump who killed Crow King’s horse, which set off a retaliation.

1861
Itonkasanduta.
Hitȟúŋkasaŋ Dúta.
Weasel Red.
Red Weasel.

Medicine Bear says: Hitȟúŋkasaŋ Dúta šuŋkawakȟaŋ óta áwičakdi aktá (Weasel Red horses many captured-returned-with again). Red Weasel returned with many captured horses[56].

High Dog says: Itȟúŋkasaŋ Lúta ktépi (Weasel Red killed-they). They killed Red Weasel[57].

1862
Tiyokicizapi.
Thí okíčhizapi.
Lodge in/at-fight-they.
They fought at a house.

This year’s entry is depicted with a house or cabin. This year could refer to the fight that set off the 1862 Dakota Conflict in Minnesota when four young Dakȟóta men killed five settlers, or to the fight at the Lower Sioux Agency where the Dakȟóta raided the agency headquarters and killed the agent. No fight is actually depicted, only mentioned in the Mission Dakota text accompanying the pictograph.

The Wind-Roan Bear Winter Count refers to the Isáŋyathi, Santee or Dakȟóta, in a fight with the whites[58].

1863
Nasunatankata.
Nasúna Tȟáŋka t’Á.
Brain Big died.
Big “Head” Died.

Blue Thunder and Medicine Bear both say: Akíčhita Pȟá Tȟáŋka kaškápi. Kdí na t’Á (Soldier/s Head Big imprisoned. Return and die). Soldiers imprisoned Big Head. He returned and died[59].

No Two Horns refers to this individual as Nasúna Tȟáŋka, Big Brain, and not as Pȟá Tȟáŋka[60].

Wind-Roan Bear Winter Count refers to the Dakȟóta as captives in military forts. No forts are named, but this clearly refers to the imprisonment of the Isáŋyathi at Fort Snelling, MN, this year[61].

1864
Winyan num wicaktepi.
Wíŋyaŋ núm wičáktepi.
Woman two them-killed-they.
They killed two women.

Medicine Bear says: Wíŋyaŋ nuŋpá ktépi (Woman two killed-they). They killed two women[62].

These two women referred to in this year’s entry are quite possibly the white women who were taken captive during the 1863-64 Dakota Conflict in Dakota Territory punitive campaigns. One was Mrs. Eubanks, who was rescued by the Oglála Two Face and brought to Fort Laramie - her rescuer was hung; the other was Mrs. Kelly.

High Dog says: Wayáka wiyáŋ iyópȟeyapi (Captive woman exchange-for-they). They exchanged a captive woman in trade[63]. She was stolen from the Oglála by Brings Plenty, a Sihásapa who tried to arrange a trade for her, and he made her his wife. Kelly was given the name “Real Woman.” She eventually regained her freedom either by tricking her Lakȟóta captors into bringing her to Fort Sully (present-day Pierre, SD), or she was was escorted to Fort Sully by a Huŋkphápȟa man under the protection of Sitting Bull[64].

It would appear that the text accompanying the pictograph is in error. It is not. In the cultural context of the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (The Seven Council Fires; “Great Sioux Nation”), when a women was stolen she was considered dead, whether literally or metaphorically, she died to her people. If she was stolen and was married into an enemy’s tribe, she might not ever be seen again. If a woman died in an enemy raid, she died. In either case, she was mourned and life resumed without her.

1865 Kepacapapi.
Khepȟá Čhapȟáp.
Turtle-Head Western-Painted-Turtle-them.
Western Painted Turtle Heads.

Medicine Bear[65], Blue Thunder (the British Museum variant)[66], and No Two Horns[67] say: Pȟatkáša Pȟá čhapȟÁ t’ekíyA (Jugular-vein-scarlet Head Western-Painted-Turtle stab to-cause-one’s-own-death). Blue Thunder adds that Turtle Head was stabbed to death at Kaȟmíčhiŋka (lit. “Bends-Back-On-Itself;” Big Bend), located at Big Bend, S.D. He was an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna.

1866
Ohunkakan ktepi.
Ohúŋkakaŋ ktépi.
Long-Ago-Story killed-they.
They killed Myth.

Medicine Bear says: Wóoyake Wičháša ktépi (Story Man killed-they). They killed Storyteller[68].

1867
Cahsu.
Čhaȟsú.
Little-ice-drop.
Sleet.

Medicine Bear says: Waníyetu osní (Winter cold). It was a cold dark winter[69].

Blue Thunder and No Two Horns say: Čháŋ Ičú čhiŋkšítku núŋpapi čhuwíta t’ápi. Waníyetu osní. (Wood Takes son/s two-they to-be-cold died-they. Winter cold.) He Takes Wood and his two sons froze to death. The winter was cold[70].

The Mnikȟówožu Winter Count (White Bull) says the winter was icy. A heavy snow fell, followed by a week’s thaw, then a freeze. The landscape was covered with ice[71].

The Drifting Goose Winter Count (the John K. Bear Winter Count) says: Bdé Haŋská éd wonáseta akíčhita waŋ čhuwíta t’Á (Water Long at bison-hunting soldier a to-be-cold died). A soldier froze to death on a bison hunt at Long Lake[72].

This year’s entry is depicted by a blackened circle. The blackened circle can represent death, night, or winter. Some winter counts have used the same device to represent instead a full solar eclipse that happened in August, 1869. It was visible across the Northern Plains.

The New Lakota Dictionary lists two entries for an eclipse: Aháŋzi (lit. “Shadow”), and Aóhaŋziya (lit. “To-Cast-A-Shadow-Upon”)[73]. Mr. Warren Horse Looking (Oglála), referred to the solar eclipse as: Aŋpétuwi Tokȟáȟ’aŋ (lit. “Day-Luminary To-Disappear”). The Huŋkphápȟa refer to the eclipse as: Maȟphíya Yapȟéta (lit. “Cloud/Sky/Heaven On-Fire”). Mr. John Eagle (Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate) refers to the eclipse as: Wí’Atá (lit. “Luminary All-Of-It”). Ms. Leslie Mountain (Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate) refers to the eclipse as: Khaphéya (lit. “Of-A-Singular-Appearance”). An unnamed informant from Spirit Lake refers to the eclipse as: Wí’te (lit. “New Moon”)[74].

Many winter counts depict the eclipse as a blackened circle, sometimes including two stars. In those many other winter counts, in the Lakȟóta language, they refer to the eclipse as Wí’kte (lit. “Luminary killed”).

1868
Akezaptan wicaktepi.
Akézaptaŋ wičáktepi.
Again-Five them-killed-they.
They killed fifteen of them.

Medicine Bear and High Dog say: Itázipčho akézaptaŋ t’Á (Without-Bows fifteen died). Fifteen members of the Itázipčho (Sans Arc) died[75].

High Dog says it was fifteen Crow who were killed at Waŋhíŋkpe Wakpá (lit. “Arrow River”), presently called O’Fallon Creek, located in Montana[76].

The Cranbook Winter Count says that fifteen Lakȟóta were killed[77].

Vestal’s notes on the Mnikȟówožu Winter Count (White Bull) offer a fuller picture. A Thítȟuŋwaŋ war party of as many as thirty, mostly Itázipčho, went to fight the Kaŋğí. When they encountered a Crow camp the mounted warriors closed in as those on foot prepared log breastworks, but they were discovered and routed. Those on foot perished, while those on horseback survived[78].

1869
Kangi wicas·a 30 wicaktepi.
Kȟaŋğí wičháša wikčémna yámni wičháktepi.
Crow men ten three men-killed-they.
They fought and killed thirty Crow men.

High Dog[79], Cranbrook[80], Iron Hawk[81], Lone Dog[82], Swan[83], and the Mnikȟówožu Winter Count (White Bull), say the same. The Mnikȟówožu Winter Count (White Bull) says this happened at HéčhiŋškA Pahá (lit. “Bison-Horn-Spoon Butte;” Spoonhorn Butte), presently known as Mountain Sheep Butte, located in Montana[84].

1870
Tatankawitko wonase ta.
Tȟatȟáŋka Witkó wónase t’Á.
Bison-Bull Foolish/Crazy bison-hunt died.
Fool Bull died in a bison hunt.

Medicine Bear says: Tȟatȟáŋka Witkó t’Á (Bison-Bull Crazy died). Crazy Bull died[85].

1871
Wikos·ke num tapi.
Wikȟóške núm t’ápi.
Young-woman two died-they.
Two young women died.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count appears to be the only winter count that provides further insight regarding this year’s entry. It says: Witkówiŋ nuŋpá ktépi (Crazy-women two killed-they). They killed two prostitutes[86].

The Cranbrook Winter Count recalls that Shell Necklace killed a woman, but the motive is not revealed[87].

An unfaithful man might find his belongings outside the lodge; an unfaithful women might find herself set upon a horse and sent back to her parents. Generally, the punishment for infidelity was disfigurement. A woman or man might draw a knife through the others’ nostril, perhaps even cutting the nose off as well.

The death of two women, who are vaguely remembered on this year’s entry, and remembered as prostitutes on another probably served as a minder to all Očhéthi Šakówiŋ women that they were keepers of the nation and such behavior would not be tolerated.

1872
Wis ·aya oti ta.
Wíšaya Othí t’Á.
Dyed-Red To-Dwell-There died.
Red Lodge died.

Medicine Bear says: Wakhéya Šáya t’Á (Lodge Red-Painted died). Red Painted Lodge died[88].

1873
Is·kona tawa ewicayayapi.
Iškóna[ǧi] tȟáwa ewíčhayayapi.
Black-spot-inside-horse’s-hoof his/theirs there-with-happened-they.
They happened to find horses with black spotted hooves.

Medicine Bear says: Šuŋkawakȟaŋ nuŋpá áwičakdipi (Horses two captured-returned-with). They returned with two captured horses[89].

1874
Zaptan ahiwicaktepi.
Záptaŋ ahí wičháktepi.
Five came-here them-killed-they.
They killed five [of the enemy] who came.

Medicine Bear says: Wičháša zaptáŋ ahí ktépi (Men five came-here killed-they). They killed five of them who came[90].

This year’s entry depicts five common figures, some with a reddish hue, but this indicates that it was five of the Dakȟóta or Lakȟóta who were killed and not the enemy. The enemy is not identified. Other winter counts this year indicate conflict with the Crow in Čhaȟlí Wakpá Makȟóčhe (lit. “Coal/charcoal River Country”), or Powder River country, in Montana.

1875
Toka kinuwanpi.
Tȟóka khí nuŋwáŋpi.
Enemy stole/steal-something swim-they.
The enemies stole something then swam [away].

Medicine Bear says: Tȟóka nuŋwaŋki napá (enemy swim-home escape). The enemy escaped by swimming home[91].

Blue Thunder says: Šuŋk’akaŋyaŋkapi akíčhita tȟašúŋkawakȟaŋpi oyás’iŋ waíč’iyápi (Horse-riding-they soldiers horses-belonging-to-them all-of-a-kind to-take-things-they). The cavalry took all their horses[92].

Some of the Oglála winter counts recall 1875-76 as the year the soldiers confiscated the agency Indians’ horses in retaliation for the failed Centennial Campaign that ended in General Custer’s defeat at Pȟežísla Wakpá Okíčhize (lit. Grass-Greasy River Fight), the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

This year’s entry depicts what appears to be four Crow who made off with nine horses.

1876
Hehaka ta.
Heȟáka t’Á.
Bull-Elk died.
Elk died.

Medicine Bear says: Heȟáka t’Á (Elk died). Elk died[93].

1877
Was·ni waniyetu.
Wá šni waníyetu.
Snow-on-the-ground no year/winter.
There was no snow this winter.

Medicine Bear says: Waníyetu snižé (Winter withering). A withering winter[94].

This year’s entry is depicted with what appears to be an earthlodge. A heavy arch is drawn on the outside of the lodge, which doesn’t represent snow, but an intact earthlodge. No maintenance was needed to be done on the outside of the earthlodge because there was no snow. Typically, there is a lot of regular maintenance, or patching of the earth (sometimes clay) on the earthlodge after the snow melts, and especially after a rain.

1878
Tas·unkemaza ktepi.
Tȟašúŋke Máza ktépi.
Horse Metal killed-they.
They killed Iron Horse.

This incident is also recorded in the Medicine Bear Winter Count[95].

Nearly all the remaining pictographs that indicate a permanent sedentary lifestyle, as demonstrated with the depictions of fort palisades and/or cabins from this year’s entry up until 1911.

1879
Wapahasapa tawa ewicayayapi.
Wapȟáha SápA tȟáwa ewíčhayayapi.
Warbonnet Black his/theirs there-with-happened-they.
Black Warbonnet was there with them.

Medicine Bear says: Wapȟáha Sápa šuŋkawakȟaŋ óta áwičakdi (Warbonnet Black horse many captured-returned-with). Black Warbonnet led a successful horse raid[96].

This year’s entry depicts a warbonnet above a fort/cabin.

1880
Titonwan ouwicatapi.
Thítȟuŋwaŋ oúŋ wičhát’Api.
Teton state-of-living dead-they.
The Teton were in a state of deadness.

The Huŋkphápȟa returned from Canada in a couple of movements. Some returned with Phizí, or Gall, and surrendered at Fort Buford, others with Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake surrenderd a few months later[97].

The Huŋkphápȟa can be found today at Wood Mountain in Canada (those who stayed behind), Fort Peck, MT, and on Standing Rock, in ND & SD.

The Medicine Bear[98] and High Dog winter counts both say: Phizí thí (Gall lodge). Gall lodge. Rev. Aaron Beede notes that this year soldiers had fired into Gall’s camp on the Tȟačhéži Wakpá (Bison-Tongue River), Tongue River[99].

This year’s entry is depicted with three lodges within the confines of a fort/cabin.

1881
Wakinyan nupa ktepi.
Wakíŋyaŋ núŋpa ktépi.
Thunder two killed-they.
They killed Two Thunder.

Medicine Bear says: Wakíŋyaŋ Nuŋpá ktépi (Thunder Two killed-they). They killed Two Thunder[100].

This year’s entry is depicted by two Thunderbirds above a fort/cabin.

1882
Joe hoks·ina s·ahiya owicauspa.
Joe Hokšína Šahíya owíčha yušpÁ.
Joe Cree Boy some-men to-break-off-a-piece-with-the-hands.
Joe Cree Boy met with some [Crow] men and they traded.

Joe Cree Boy may be a reference to Joseph Picotte, a French-Canadian trader, a trade partner of Charles Primeau. Both men had Dakȟóta-Lakȟóta wives at Standing Rock[101].

The Cranbrook Winter Count says that three Crows came to Standing Rock on a mission of peace[102].

Medicine Bear and High Dog say: Kȟaŋğí wičháša yámni hípi (Crow men three came-they). Three Crow men came to them[103].

This year’s entry depicts a trader beside the fort and three Crow within the palisade.

1883
Matowakanta.
Matȟó Wakȟáŋ t’Á.
Bear With-Energy died.
Medicine Bear died.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count says the same[104].

This year’s entry depicts a bear “with-energy” [wavy lines within its body] above a fort/cabin, indicating that Medicine Bear died at the agency.

1884
Makaqapi.
Makȟá k’apí.
Earth dug-they.
They dug into the earth.

Medicine Bear says: Makȟá k’apí (Earth dug-they). They dug earth[105].

This year’s entry depicts an earthlodge with a heavy line around it. This may indicate that those who had earthlodges did some maintenance this year.

1885
Wag·unapin ta.
Waȟúŋ Nap’íŋ t’Á.
Scorches Necklace died.
Necklace Burn died.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count says the same[106].

This year’s entry is depicted with a figure wearing a choker above a fort/cabin.

1886
Wakanpahomini ktepi.
Wakȟáŋpahomni ktépi.
With-Energy-Turns killed-they.
They killed Turns Holy.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count says the same[107].

This year’s entry features a figure with stylized hair [Crow perhaps?], wearing a breastplate, and holding a discharging gun. Above the figure appears to be a name glyph, which seems to be something rotating in a counterclockwise direction. Oglála and Sičháŋğu winter counts recall hunting accidents on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud agencies.

1887
Mah·piyaheton miniwani kte.
Maȟpíya Hétoŋ Mníwani kté.
Cloud Horn Turning kill.
Turning Horn Cloud was killed.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count says the same[108].

This year’s entry is depicted by three common figures above a fort. The leftmost figure appears to bear a wound, the rightmost figure holds a discharged gun.

There was an Oglála named Horn Cloud and his wife, Nest, however both died about 1890. This year’s pictograph may refer to that incident.

1888
Isun manusa ta.
Išúŋmanuŋ t’Á.
Fails-To-Steal died.
Does Not Steal died.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count says the same[109].

This year’s entry depicts a figure imprisoned within the fort’s stockade.

1889
Sunka kan wan kiinyan kdi ta.
Šuŋkawakȟaŋ waŋ kiíyaŋkdi t’Á.
Horse a race-horse died.
A horse died in a horse race.

The Medicine Bear Winter Count says the same[110].

This year’s entry depicts a horse’s head above a fort/cabin.

1890
Tatankaiyotake ktepi.
Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake ktépi.
Bison-Bull Sitting-Down killed-they.
They killed Sitting Bull.

Major McLaughlin ordered the BIA Police to arrest Sitting Bull after word reached him about a ghost dance that was held there at Sitting Bull’s camp along the Grand River. Catch The Bear demanded the release of Sitting Bull, then ran for the officers when it was evident they wouldn’t release him, and shot Captain Bull Head. Bull Head in turn turned and shot Sitting Bull in the side, killing him immediately[111].

This year’s entry is depicted by an upright bison bull and two figures above a fort/cabin. The two figures in hats could represent Captain Bull Head and Sergeant Shave Head who were shot and wounded at nearly the same time.

1891
Matonape ta.
Matȟó Napé t’Á.
Bear Hand died.
Hand Bear died.

This year’s entry depicts a figure in a shirt above a fort/cabin.

The Indian Affairs Commission appointed Left Hand Bear as chief of the Huŋkphápȟa people in the summer of 1866. This may refer to his passing.

1892
Wanbditanka ta.
Waŋbdí Tȟaŋka t’Á.
Eagle Big died.
Big Eagle died.

This year’s entry depicts an eagle above a fort/cabin.

There was a Big Eagle (Mnikȟówožu) who signed the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty. This may refer to his passing.

1893
Akicita wan uta yapi.
Akíčhita waŋ utȟÁ yápi.
Soldier/s a/the to-fire-a-shot they-go.
The soldiers went there and fired a shot.

This year’s entry depicts a horse’s head and something else (a bird perhaps?) above a fort/cabin.

1894
Isanyati hoksina wan kataiyeiciya.
Isáŋyathi hokšína waŋ katáiyeičiya.
Santee boy a shot-himself.
A Santee boy shot himself.

This year’s entry depicts a figure hold a discharged gun above a fort/cabin.

1895
Wanbdiduta ta.
Waŋbdí Dúta t’Á.
Eagle Red died.
Red Eagle died.

This year’s entry depicts a red bird, eagle, above a fort/cabin.

1896
Mazakan narma kdi.
Mázakȟaŋ NaȟmÁ akdí.
Metal-With-Energy To-Conceal-One’s-Own return.
Hides His Gun returned.

This year’s entry depicts a figure above a fort/cabin with a name glyph of a gun above his head.

1897
Canteya ta.
Čhaŋtéya t’Á.
His-Heart died.
His Heart died.

This year’s entry depicts a figure above a fort/cabin with a name glyph that resembles a leaf with stem, but could be a heart.

1898
Sunkahanska ta.
Šuŋká Haŋská t’Á.
Dog Long died.
Long Dog died.

This year’s entry depicts a figure above a fort/cabin with a name glyph of a dog with an elongated body.

1899
Iyansana ta.
Iŋyáŋšana t’Á.
Stone-Red-[familiar-diminutive] died.
Red Stone died.

The use of “-la,” or “na,” as a suffix, as with a person’s name, indicate a feeling of closeness or affection. The usage here indicates that the person was a beloved figure.

This year’s entry depicts a figure wearing a wapȟégnakA (a type of headwear, usually us quilled slat with feathers and/or plumes) above a fort/cabin with a name glyph of a red circular/oblong shape, probably a “stone,” indicating the name. The figure appears to be wounded, but the entry’s accompanying text indicates that he died (of natural causes) as opposed to being killed. Perhaps he died of natural causes which was somehow related to his old injury.

1900
Ia taninwin ta.
Iyá Taníyaŋ Wiŋ t’Á.
Voice Visible Woman died.
Visible Voice Woman died.

This year’s entry depicts a long haired figure (unplaited hair in pictography generally means this is a woman) above a fort/cabin with a name glyph representative of her voice above her head.

1901
Icabs·inte maza ta.
Ičhápsite Máza t’Á.
Whip metal died.
Iron Whip died.

This year’s entry depicts a figure set left and above a fort/cabin with a name glyph of a horse quirt which appears to be a gray color, definitely not black, which might support the interpretation of the image as that of iron.

1902
Sihawoheyun wan tawiciu kte.
Sihá Wóheyuŋ waŋ tȟawíŋ ičhíu kté.
Foot Bundle a his-wife with kill.
Bundle Foot and his wife were killed.

This year’s entry depicts two figures above a fort/cabin. The left figure appears to have a head wound.

1903
Wamanusicas·a wan ktepi.
Wamánuŋ šičá waŋ ktépi.
To-steal-things bad a kill-they.
They killed a thief.

This year’s entry depicts a lone figure above a fort/cabin wearing a hat with half his body blackened, indicating severe injury. In general, traders or white men are depicted with hats, but in the post-reservation era, native men took to wearing not just non-native clothing, but also hats; he does not have long hair. This figure could well be a white thief who was killed, or a native thief also wearing a hat who was killed. The text accompanying this year’s entry doesn’t indicate either possibility.

1904
Wapahasapa ta.
Wapȟáha Sápa t’Á.
Warbonnet Black died.
Black Warbonnet died.

This year’s entry depicts a figure wearing a warbonnet above a fort/cabin.

1905
Hanbziateyapi.
Háŋpa Zí atéyapi.
Moccasin Yellow for-whom-they-have-for-a-father.
They have Yellow Moccasins for their agent.

This year’s entry depicts a “beefalo” (a bison-cow mix) above a fort/cabin, which possibly represents that Yellow Moccasins is a mixed blood.

1906
Cetanwakinwa ta.
Čhetáŋ Wakhúwa t’Á.
Hawk To-Hunt/Chase died.
Chasing Hawk died.

This year’s entry depicts a figure above a fort/cabin with a name glyph of a bird of prey with its legs extended to pluck its target.

1907
Wanbdiwakan kataiyeiciya.
Waŋbdí Wakȟáŋ katáiyeičiya.
Eagle With-Energy shot-himself.
Holy Eagle shot himself.

This year’s entry depicts an eagle atop a fort/cabin, a rifle points at the eagle.

1908
Sisseton mazaska icupi.
Sisíthuŋwaŋ mázaska kičhúpi.
Sisíthuŋwaŋ metal-white [silver] to-restore-something-to-someone-them.
The Sisíthuŋwaŋ received a payment due to them.

This year’s entry depicts a circle above a fort/cabin. The outline of the circle is deliberately heavy and is one of the blackest things appearing on the winter count. A lighter circle of gray is painted within the darker one. This represents a silver dollar, or mázaska.

1909
Iyakcunipi ta.
IyÁ Kičhúŋnipi t’Á.
To-Speak To-Desist-Something-They died.
They Stop Talking died.

This year’s entry depicts a figure above a fort/cabin. Bold lines radiate out from in front of the figure, representing talking loudly or out loud to others, then nothing.

1910
Tonkasitominiduta ta.
Tȟáŋka Sitómniyaŋ Dúta t’Á.
Big All-Over-In-Every-Direction Red died.
Big Red All Over died.

This probably refers to Átaya Dúta (lit. “Entire Red”), or Red All Over, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna man on Standing Rock who took his journey around this time.

This year’s entry depicts a figure above a fort/cabin. A name glyph of a red circle appears above the figure, which might represent the figure’s name.

1911
There is no text for this entry.

This is the final entry on the Chandler-Pohrt Winter Count to feature a pictograph. This year’s entry depicts a figure wearing a trailer headdress and an ermine adorned warshirt. A name glyph appears with the figure resembling a horse. This may refer to Chief White Horse who resided at Spirit Lake and who took his journey.

The Iron Hawk Winter Count entry recalls Spotted Horse taking his journey this year[112].

1912
There is no text for this year’s entry, nor the following seven.

This year’s entry depicts a green square. The square, or divided square, has been used to represent farming in Plains Indian pictography. It stands to reason then that this year was a farming year, or a good farming year.

1913-19
These years all have the same simple line demarcating the years. This could reflect the feelings that they’ve entered a time when nothing happens. The line could also represent allotments, fractionization of the reservations, or the division of the reservations when they were opened up for sale to non-natives.

END NOTES
__________

[1] Innis, Ben. "The Heritage of Bloody Knife." In Bloody Knife: Custer's Favorite Scout, 9-12. Revised ed. Bismarck, ND: Smokey Water Press, 1994.

[2] Gayton, Mrs. Henry and Mr. Jim. "Region Three, Sioux County." Interview by Larry Sprunk for the State Historical Society of North Dakota. June 17, 1974.

[3] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[4] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 366.

[5] Howard, James H. "Yanktonai Ethnohistory And The John K. Bear Winter Count." Plains Anthropologist 21, no. 73, Part 2 (1976): 46.

[6] Ibid. Pp. 37 & 54.

[7] Hyde, George E. "Indian Paradise." In Spotted Tail's Folk: A History of the Brule Sioux, 25. Norman, Oklahoma: University Of Oklahoma Press, 1961.

[8] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[9] Chardon, F.A. Chardon's Journal At Fort Clark, 1834-1839. Edited by Annie Heloise Abel. 1st Bison Book Edition ed. Lincoln, NB: University Of Nebraska Press, 1997. 123.

[10] Higgenbotham, N.A. "The Wind-Roan Bear Winter Count." Plains Anthropologist 26, no. 91 (1981): 20.

[11] Robinson, Doane. A History Of The Dakota Or Sioux Indians. Reprint (1904) ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Ross & Haines, 1956. 85-87.

[12] Denig, Edwin Thompson. "Of The Sioux." In Five Indian Tribes Of The Upper Missouri: Sioux, Arikaras, Assiniboines, Crees, And Crows, edited by John C. Ewers, 32-34. Norman, Oklahoma: University Of Oklahoma Press, 1961.

[13] Howard, James H. "Yanktonai Ethnohistory And The John K. Bear Winter Count." Plains Anthropologist 21, no. 73, Part 2 (1976): 48.

[14] Ibid. P. 50.

[15] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Anthropological Papers Bulletin 173, no. 61 (1960): 375.

[16] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[17] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Anthropological Papers Bulletin 173, no. 61 (1960): 376-377.

[18] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[19] Ibid.

[20] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[21] Lakota-English Dictionary. Compiled by Rev. Eugene Buechel. Edited by Rev. Paul Manhart. Pine Ridge, SD: Red Cloud Indian School, 1983.

[22] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 379.

[23] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 16.

[24] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 379.

[27] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[28] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 379-380.

[29] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[30] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 380.

[31] Ibid. P. 381

[32] Ibid.

[33] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 381.

[34] Welch, Col. A.B. "Red Tomahawk, ‘Sitting Bull was my friend, I killed him like this..’" Welch Dakota Papers. April 14, 2012. Accessed January 6, 2016. http://www.welchdakotapapers.com.

[35] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[36] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 381 & 382.

[37] Map Of The Missouri From Its Mouth To Three Forks, Montana, Plat LIII. Washington D.C.: Missouri River Commission, 1895.

[38] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 382.

[39] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[40] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 383.

[41] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[42] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[43] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 384.

[44] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[45] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 18.

[46] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 384.

[47] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[48] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[49] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 19.

[50] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 385.

[51] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[52] Ibid.

[53] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[54] Wooley, David L., and Joseph D. Horse Capture. "Joseph No Two Horns: He Nupa Wanica."American Indian Art Magazine 18, no. 3 (1993): 32-43.

[55] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 19.

[56] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[57] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[58] Higgenbotham, N.A. "The Wind-Roan Bear Winter Count." Plains Anthropologist 26, no. 91 (1981): 24.

[59] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 388.

[60] No Two Horns. “No Two Horns Winter Count.” State Historical Society of North Dakota.

[61] Higgenbotham, N.A. "The Wind-Roan Bear Winter Count." Plains Anthropologist 26, no. 91 (1981): 24.

[62] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[63] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[64] Vestal, Stanley. "The Captive White Woman." In Sitting Bull: Champion Of The Sioux, A Biography, 64. 1st ed. Norman, OK: University Of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

[65] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[66] Howard, James H. "The British Museum Winter Count." British Museum Occasional Paper, No. 4 (1979): 66.

[67] No Two Horns. “No Two Horns Winter Count.” State Historical Society of North Dakota.

[68] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 391.

[71] Vestal, Stanley. Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull. 1st Bison Book Edition ed. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. 267.

[72] Howard, James H. "Yanktonai Ethnohistory And The John K. Bear Winter Count." Plains Anthropologist 21, no. 73, Part 2 (1976): 55.

[73] New Lakota Dictionary. Compiled by Jan Ullrich. Bloomington, IN: Lakota Language Consortium, 2nd Edition, 2011.

[74] Goodhouse, Dakota. "Solar Eclipse Remembered As Fire Cloud." The First Scout. October 24, 2014. http://thefirstscout.blogspot.com.

[75] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[76] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[77] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 21.

[78] Vestal, Stanley. Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull. 1st Bison Book Edition ed. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. 268.

[79] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[80] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 21.

[81] Sundstrom, Jessie Y., and Rebecca Halfred. “Translation of the Iron Hawk Winter Count.” Unpublished manuscript, 1988.

[82] Mallory, Garrick. "Lone Dog's Winter Count." In Picture-Writing Of The American Indians, 286-287. Reprint (2012) ed. Vol. 1. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 2012.

[83] Mallory, Garrick. "Time - Winter Counts." In Pictographs of the North American Indians, Annual Reports No. 4, 127. Washington DC: Bureau Of American Ethnology, 1886.

[84] Vestal, Stanley. Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull. 1st Bison Book Edition ed. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. 268.

[85] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[86] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[87] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 22.

[88] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92] Howard, James H. "Dakota Winter Counts As A Source Of Plains History." Smithsonian Institution, Bureau Of American Ethnology, Bulletin 173, Anthropological Papers, no. 61 (1960): 396.

[93] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[94] Ibid.

[95] Ibid.

[96] Ibid.

[97] Larson, Robert. "The Canadian Exile." In Gall: Lakota War Chief, 170-173. 1st ed. Norman, Oklahoma: University Of Oklahoma Press, 2007.

[98] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[99] High Dog. "High Dog Winter Count." State Historical Society of North Dakota, Interview by Rev. Aaron Beede. 1912.

[100] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[101] Primeau, Tom. "Standing Rock: Heads Of Families By Bands 1885." Primeau. May 1, 1999. Accessed December 28, 2015. http://www.primeau.org.

[102] Praus, Alexis A. The Sioux, 1798-1922: A Dakota Winter Count. Bulletin No. 44. Fredericksburg, Virginia: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Riverby Books, 1962. 24.

[103] Medicine Bear. “Medicine Bear Winter Count.” The Hood Museum of Art, Cat. 117.

[104] Ibid.

[105] Ibid.

[106] Ibid.

[107] Ibid.

[108] Ibid.

[109] Ibid.

[110] Ibid.

[111] Bullhead, Francis. "Letter To The Editor." Sioux County Pioneer, 1910.

[112] Sundstrom, Jessie Y., and Rebecca Halfred. “Translation of the Iron Hawk Winter Count.” Unpublished manuscript, 1988.

Friday, December 11, 2015

The Blue Thunder, Or Yellow Lodge, Winter Count

A composite image of the Blue Thunder Winter Count.
Wakíŋyaŋ Tȟó Waníyetu Wowápi
The Blue Thunder Winter Count
Edited by Dakota Wind
BISMARCK, N.D. - The Blue Thunder Winter Count is currently part of the permanent collections at the State Historical Society of North Dakota. Blue Thunder's story can be found here. Following his death sometime in the early 1920s, the winter count tradition was taken up by Yellow Lodge. The last dozen or so entries clearly by a hand not Blue Thunder's. 

Blue Thunder had no known children, no sons or daughters of his own, but the tradition was taken up by his step-daughter Tópa Kdí Inážiŋ Wiŋ (Stops Four Times Returning Woman). She in turn passed it down to her daughters (one of those daughters is this writer's own great-grandmother, Tȟaté Dúta Wiŋ (Scarlet Wind Woman). 

He Nuŋpá Waníča (Lit. "Horn/s Two There-Are-None"), or No Two Horns, rendered this winter count. It is currently in the collections at the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

The Blue Thunder Winter Count entries are matched in the entries of the No Two Horns Winter Count (pictographs are rendered in No Two Horns own wonderful artistic hand).

1785-86:          Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka wíŋyaŋ waŋ iyéyapi (With-Energy Great woman a found-for-themselves). They found a Great Spirit woman.

Blue Thunder said that this was near the ocean, or the mouth of the Missouri River.

According to High Hawk (Oglála) the Lakȟóta captured a Hóhe (Assiniboine) woman who cried out that she was a Wakȟáŋ Tȟaŋká wiŋyáŋ. They took her with them regardless, but later freed her.

1786-87:          Ȟewáktokta ób kičhízapi kiŋ (Hidatsa with battle-they the). They fought with the Hidatsa.

1787-88:          Pȟóğe HáŋskA ktépi (Nostril Long killed-they). They killed Long Nose.

1788-89:          Pȟehíŋ HáŋskA waŋ ktépi (Hair Long a killed-they). They killed a Long Hair.

1789-90:          Mníyaye Yuhá waŋ ktépi (Water-Carrier Has a killed-they). They killed Water-Carrier-Owner.

1790-91:          Wapȟáha Kitȟúŋ tȟóka ahí ktépi (Warbonnet To-Wear-Something enemy came-here killed-they). An enemy came and killed Wears-Warbonnet.

1791-92:          Ištá Saŋní waŋ Sihásapa Wašíču Ikčéka ktépi (Eye One-Of-Two a Sole-Black Fat-Takes Common killed-they). The French killed One-Eye, a Sihásapa (Blackfeet; one of the seven Lakota tribes).

1792-93:          Ȟaȟátȟuŋwaŋ wíŋyaŋ heyáke šá uŋ waŋ ktépi (Waterfall-Village woman dress red a killed-they). They killed an Ojibwe woman wearing a red dress.

1793-94:          Ȟewáktokta nakúŋ Pȟadáni nakúŋ Miwátani ób kičhízapi, Wakpá Wašté éd, iyúhaŋ hú ópi eyápi (Hidatsa and Arikara and Mandan with fight-they, River Good at, everyone leg wounded say-they). They say they fought with the Hidatsa, Arikara, and Mandan at the Good River (presently the Cheyenne River), and everyone’s leg was wounded.

1794-95:          Šiyótȟaŋka Yuhá waŋ ahí ktépi (Flute Has a came-here killed-they). They came and killed Flute-Owner.

1795-96:          Ȟewáktokta nakúŋ Pȟadáni ób kičhízapi. Istó ópi eyápi. (Hidatsa and Arikara with fought-they. Arm wounded said-they). They say they fought with the Hidatsa and Arikara and everyone’s arms were wounded.

1796-97:          Wówapi waŋ makȟá kawíŋȟ hiyáyapi (Flag/book a earth to-turn-around came-and-passed-along-they). They brought a flag around the country. The image for this year is the British Union Jack flag.

1797-98:          Omáha yamní ktépi (Omaha three killed-they). They killed three Omaha.

1798-99:          Šuŋg pȟehíŋ tȟáŋka yedó (Horse mane big it-is-so). There was a horse with a big mane.

1799-1800:      Čhápa othí mníyaweyapi (Beaver dwelling water-found-they). They found water in a beaver’s den. 

1800-01:          Wičháȟaŋȟaŋ (Man-full-of-scabby-sores). Smallpox.

1801-02:          Šuŋgníni óta áwičakdipi (Horse-wild many captured-return-they). They returned with wild horses.

1802-03:          Šuŋg’ğúğuna áwičakdipi (Horse-curly-hair captured-return-they). They returned with curly-haired horses.

1803-04:          Šaké máza áwičakdipi (Hoof iron captured-return-they). They returned with iron shod horse/s.

1804-05:          Tȟasíŋte uŋ akíčhidowaŋpi (Their-tail using together-with-song-they). They sang in praise of one another using horse tails.

1805-06:          Šakdóğaŋ ahí wičáktepi (Eight came-here men-killed-they). They came and killed eight of them.

1806-07:          Tuŋwéya waŋ ktépi (Scout the killed-they). They killed a scout.

1807-08:          Napsíoȟdi mázazi tȟoká uŋ waŋ ktépi (Ring iron-yellow first wear a killed-they). They killed a man who was the first to wear brass rings.
             
1808-09:          Paháta í waŋ ktépi (To-the-hill on-account-of the killed they). They killed a man who went to the hill.

1809-10:          WíyakA tȟó ótapi iyéyapi waníyetu (Feather blue many-they found-they winter). That winter they found many blue feathers.

1810-11:          Wi’akhíniča pedó (Woman-to-have-a-dispute-over they-did). They had a dispute over a woman.

1811-12:          Šúŋkawakȟaŋ ská šuŋksímaza yuhá waŋ iyéyapi (Horse white hooves-iron had the found-they). They found a white horse wearing horseshoes.

1812-13:          Matȟó Čík’ada ahí ktépi (Bear Little came-here killed-they). They came and killed Little Bear.

1813-14:          Šákpe wičáktepi waníyetu kiŋ (Six them-killed-they winter the). They killed six that winter.

1814-15:          Thítȟuŋwaŋ ka Ȟewáktokta ób kičhízapi na nakúŋ Thítȟuŋwaŋ čhehúpa ópi (Teton there Hidatsa with fight-they and also Teton jaw wound). The Teton fought the Hidatsa and a Lakota was shot in the jaw.

1815-16:          Núŋpa wakté akdí (Two to-have-killed-in-battle return). He returned with two war honors.

1816-17:          Pté sáŋ waŋ unktépi (Bison-cow creamy-white we-killed-they). They killed a white bison cow.

1817-18:          Pȟeháŋ Tȟó pȟá dúta waŋ yáŋkapi (Heron Blue head red look sat-they). They saw a blue crane with a red head.

1818-19:          Makȟóšiča Našdí (Across-the-country-bad to-have-pustules). An epidemic of measles.

1819-20:          Čhozé čhaŋpúpuŋ uŋ thikáğA (Čhozé [Joseph] wood-dry/rotten live to-pitch-a-lodge). A man they called Čhozé [Joseph] built a cabin using dry-rotted wood.

1820-21:          Kȟaŋğí óta t’Ápi (Crow many died-they). Many crows died.

1821-22:          Wičháȟpi waŋ hotȟúŋ hiyáyA (Star a cried-out pass-by). A star cried out as it passed by.

1822-23:          Ȟewáktokta yámni wátamahE wičáktepi (Hidatsa three in-a-boat them-killed-they). They killed three Hidatsa in a boat.

1823-24:          Wahúwapa šéča ȟápi waníyetu kiŋ (Ears-of-corn dried bury-they winter the). That winter they cached parched ears of corn.

1824-25:          Ȟaȟátȟuŋwaŋ ób kičhízapi. Čhaŋkáškapi yuȟdéčapi ([Water] Fall-dwellers with fight-they. Fence-fortification to-tear-apart-they). They fought with the Chippewa. They tore their palisades to pieces.

1825-26:          Mní wičhát’E (Water many-dead). Dead bodies in the water.

1826-27:          Máğana iwáktekdi kiŋ (Garden [Little] returned-victorious-having-done-killing-in-battle the). Little Garden returned with war honors.

1827-28:          Wičháakiȟ’aŋ na wičháša čheȟpí yútA, Isáŋyathi (Starvation and people flesh to-eat-something, Santee). In their desperate hunger, the Santee ate their own.

1828-29:          Ógde Dúta, Pȟadáni, ktépi (Red Shirt, an Arikara, was killed).

1829-30:          Makhú Šá čhaŋkáğa thípi káğA Hiŋháŋ Wakpá éd (Breast-bone Red trimmed-logs lodge to-build Owl River at). Red Breast built a cabin on Owl River (Moreau River).

1830-31:          Wónase adówaŋpi kiŋ (Bison-Chase/Hunt Singing-for-they the). They sang for Buffalo Chase.

1831-32:          Pȟadáni ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Šagdóğaŋ wičáktepi. (Arikara with fight-they the. Eight them-killed-they). They fought with the Arikara. The Arikara killed eight of the Dakȟóta.

1832-33:          Hú KsahÁŋ mníwakȟaŋ iyéya na yatkáŋyaŋ t’Á (Leg Broken/Severed water-with-energy to-do-suddenly and drinking died). Broken Leg found whiskey and died drinking it.

1833-34:          Wičháȟpi hiŋȟpáya (Star-Nation to-fall-down). The stars fell down.

1834-35:          Matȟó kičhí waníthipi, Čhaŋté Wakpá éd (Bear with winter-camp, Heart River at). They made winter camp with a bear, at Heart River.

1835-36:          Wičhíyena óta wičhákasotapi waníyetu (Wičhíyena many massacre-they winter). Many Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna (Yanktonai) were massacred that winter.

1836-37:          Wapȟáha Iyúsdohetoŋ waníyetu, Pȟadáni Wakpá éd (Warbonnet Trailing-tail winter, Arikara River at). Warbonnet with trailer winter, at Grand River.

1837-38:          Wičháȟaŋȟaŋ (Smallpox). Smallpox.

1838-39:          Pȟóžaŋžaŋ pté sáŋ kté (To-sniff-as-an-animal-does-the-wind female-bison creamy-white killed). Sniffer killed a white bison cow.

1839-40:          Ištá Máza ktépi, Waáŋataŋ (Eye/s Iron killed-they, He-Rushes-To-Attack). They killed Iron Eyes, The Charger.

1840-41:          Tȟámina Wé iwáktekdi kiŋ, Pȟadáni (His-Knife Blood returned-with-war-honors the, Arikara). His Bloody Knife returned with war honors against the Arikara.

1841-42:          Psaóhaŋpi (Snowshoes).

1842-43:          Tȟatȟáŋka Oyé Wakȟáŋ t’Á. Wakhéya kdézena uŋ wičháknakapi. (Bison-Bull Tracks With-Energy died. Lodge striped using above-the-ground [buried]-they). Holy Buffalo Tracks dies. They laid him to rest in a striped thípi.

1843-44:          Dé thiyópa šá othí pté akhú (This lodge-door red to-dwell bison brought-home).  A red thípi door brought the bison.

1844-45:          Makȟóšiča Nawíčašdi (Epidemic measles). There was an epidemic of measles.

1845-46:          Pȟadáni Waȟpé Šá, Wičhíyena, čhaŋkpé ópi (Arikara Leaf Red, Wičhíyena, Knee wound/shot). An Arikara wounded an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna named Red Leaf in the knee.

1846-47:          Tȟatȟáŋka Pȟá ištíŋmA t’Á (Bison-bull Head sleep died). Bull Head died in his sleep. This was the father of Lt. Henry Bullhead who killed Sitting Bull.

1847-48:          Ȟaŋtéčhaŋ Wakpá na Píğa Wakpá ožáte éd waníthipi. Wašíču wiínaȟbe kičhí waníthi. (Cedar Creek and Boiling Creek forks at winter-camp-they. Takes-The-Fat seducer-of-women with winter-camp). They established winter camp where the Cedar River and Boiling River converge. A white man, a seducer of women, camped the winter with them.

1848-49:          Pȟadáni na Wičhíyena kičhí čhapȟápi (Arikara and Wičhíyena with stabbed-they). An Arikara and an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna stabbed each other.

1849-50:          Wakíŋyaŋ Yuhá, Wičhíyena, čhaŋkȟáğathipi mahé t’Á (Thunder Has, Wičhíyena, wood-cut-lodge inside died). Has Thunder, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna, died in a log cabin.

1850-51:          Wópȟetȟuŋ waŋ Wičhíyena ópi. Matȟó Núŋpa thíŋktes’a t’eyÁ (Trader a Wičhíyena wound. Bear Two murderer-would-be caused-to-die). An Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna wounds a trader. Two Bear puts the would-be murderer to death.

1851-52:          Heȟáka Dúta kičhí waníthipi, Pȟadáni (Elk Red with winter-camp, Arikara). Red Elk, an Arikara, camped with them that winter.

1852-53:          Psaóhaŋpi (Snowshoes). Snowshoes.

1853-54:          Hé Tópa uŋ waŋ ktépi (Horn/s Four wearing a killed-they). They killed a man wearing a headdress with four horns.

1854-55:          Wičhíyena Hóhe ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Makȟá Sáŋ Wakpá éd. WahíŋtkA ktépi. (Wičhíyena Assiniboine with fight-they the. Earth Creamy-White River at. Scraper killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought with the Assiniboine. They were at White Earth River. They killed Scraper.

1855-56:          Phuthíŋ Ská wawáhoye kiŋ (Beard White to-order-things the). White Beard [General William Harney] gave the order.

They were at Čhúŋaške (Fort Pierre) that winter. White Beard called a council and treated with them. They wintered with him.

1856-57:          Wičhíyena Hóhe ób kičhízapi kiŋ. Mníyaye Zí ktépi (Wičhíyena Assiniboine with fight-they the. Water-carrier Yellow killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought with the Assiniboine. They killed Yellow Water-Carrier.

1857-58:          Tȟóka, Pȟadáni Miwátani Ȟewáktokta, Wičhíyena ób kičhízapi. Wičhíyena šákpe ktépi (Enemy, Arikara Mandan Hidatsa, Wičhíyena with fight-they. Wičhíyena six killed-they). The Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna fought against the enemy force of Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa. They killed six Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna.

1858-59:          Waŋbdí Hoȟpí t’Á (Eagle Nest died). Eagle Nest died.

1859-60:          Šúŋka HáŋskA ktépi (Dog Long killed-they). They killed Long Dog.

1860-61:          Tȟaŋčháŋ WíyakA YukȟÁŋ, Wičhíyena, čhuwíta t’Á (Body Feather To-Be, Wičhíyena, to-be-cold die). Feather On His Body, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna, died from the cold.

1861-62:          Čhaŋté Wakpá othípi (Heart River to-camp-they). They camped at Heart River.

1862-63:          Hóhe wikčémna núŋpa wičáktepi (Assiniboine ten two them-killed-they). They killed twenty Assiniboine.

1863-64:          Akíčhita Pȟá Tȟáŋka kaškápi. Kdí na t’Á (Soldier/s Head Big imprisoned. Return and die). Soldiers imprisoned Big Head. He returned and died.

1864-65:          Tȟáȟča Óta ahí wóokhiye káğA (Deer Many came-here peace to-make). Many Deer (Gen. Henry Maynadier) came and made peace.

Blue Thunder: Soldiers made camp [Fort Rice, ND] to made a treaty with the Wičhíyena but  the Wičhíyena ran off and the soldiers took three of them as prisoners. Their leader, IyÁ Wičákȟa (The One Who Speaks The Truth), the father of Two Bear, was among the three.

1865-66:          Pȟatkâša Pȟá čhapȟÁ t’ekíyA (Jugular-vein-scarlet Head [Western Painted Turtle] stab to-cause-one’s-own-death). Turtle Head was stabbed to death.

Blue Thunder: They were camping at Kaȟmíčhiŋka (River Bends Back Upon Itself; Big Bend, SD).

1866-67:          Phizí čhapȟápi (Gall stabbed-they). They stabbed Gall.

Blue Thunder: Phizí tried to make peace at Fort Rice [Berthold], but soldiers stabbed him, twice in the body and once in the neck. He had not done anything bad. He and Grass (Matȟó Watȟákpe; Charging Bear) went there together to talk with the head soldier (Capt. Adams Bassett).

1867-68:          Čháŋ Ičú čhiŋkšítku núŋpapi čhuwíta t’ápi. Waníyetu osní. (Wood Takes son/s two-they to-be-cold died-they. Winter cold.)  He Takes Wood and his two sons froze to death. The winter was cold.

1868-69:          Máni Dúta, Šinásapa, ahí wóokhiye káğA (Walk Red, Robe-black, came-here peace to-make). Fr. De Smet, a Jesuit (Black Robe), came to make peace with Walks In Red (Gall).

Blue Thunder: Fr. De Smet, a Catholic priest, came to make a treaty with the Thítȟuŋwaŋ. Blue Thunder brought twenty Húŋkphapȟa under Gall to Fort Rice to entice them to sign the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868. When they arrived at Fort Rice, the soldiers took Gall prisoner then let word spread that they were going to hang him. Two Bear protested. The soldiers stripped Gall then beat him before releasing him. The Thítȟuŋwaŋ were angered at this. There would be no peace, nor trust.

1869-70:          Núŋpa čhaŋ mnayáŋpi wičáktepi, Pȟadáni (Two wood gathering killed-they, Arikara). They killed an Arikara couple who were out gathering wood.

1870-71:          Šúŋkawakȟaŋ óta mní t’ápi. Šúŋkawakȟaŋ wičhóthi okáwiŋȟ khuwápi. (Horse many water died-they. Horse camp-around chased-they.) Many horses drowned. They chased horses around the camp.

Blue Thunder: Winter camp at Pȟadáni Wakpá (Grand River). A flood drowned many horses which were tied to the trees for shelter that night.
Blue Thunder variants I-III: At Grand River. Many horses died in a flood. The Húŋkphápȟa were camping between the Rosebud River and Fast Horse Creek. The Crow came and stole nearly all the horses. They chased the horses through the camp.

1871-72:          Wašíču waŋ Nasú ikčéka kté (Takes-The-Fat a Brain common killed). Brain, a Lakȟóta, killed a white man.

Blue Thunder variants I-III: A Dakȟóta they called Brain killed a white man. The Blue Thunder winter count and variants I-III all depict a man dressed as a white man, but with long hair, and wearing a wawóslata wanáp’iŋ (a hair-pipe breastplate), with an arrow in his side.

1872-73:          Túwe Tȟatȟáŋka Nážiŋ kté (Someone Bison-Bull Stand kill). Someone killed Standing Buffalo (Bull).

1873-74:          Hokšída Akíčhita, Ziŋtkáda ŠíčA, tuŋwéya Dakȟóta waŋ wašíču ikčéka ktépi, Psíŋ Otȟúŋwahe éd (Boy Soldier, Bird Bad, scout Dakȟóta a Takes-The-Fat common killed-they, Wild-Rice Village at). Soldier boy, Bad Bird, Dakȟóta scout was killed by the whites, at Wild Rice Village (Fort Rice, DT).

Blue Thunder: The whites killed Bad Bird, a Dakȟóta scout.
Blue Thunder winter count and variants II & III: Bad Bird is depicted wearing a hat with his name, a black bird, above his head. In the variant I, he is depicted wearing a small feather “dream headdress” upon the back of his head.

1874-75:          Ité Omáğažu kaškápi, Čhanté Wakpá Akíčhita Otȟúŋwahe éd (Face It-Rains-Into imprison-they, Heart River Soldier Camp at). Rain In The Face was imprisoned at Fort Abraham Lincoln, DT.

1875-76:          Mníwakȟáŋ Iyéyapi (Water-with-energy [whiskey] found-they). They found whisky.

Blue Thunder: They found a keg of whiskey near the shore at Íŋyaŋ Bosdáta Akíčhita Otȟúŋwahe (Standing Rock Soldier Village; Fort Yates, DT). They had a council and drank it all up.

1876-77:          Šuŋk’akaŋyaŋkapi akíčhita tȟašúŋkawakȟaŋpi oyás’iŋ waíč’iyápi (Horse-riding-they soldiers horses-belonging-to-them all-of-a-kind to-take-things-they). The cavalry took all their horses.

Blue Thunder and all the variants: Horse soldiers confiscated all of their horses at Fort Yates. This was in retaliation for the loss of General Custer and the 7th Cavalry the previous summer.

1877-78:          Matȟó Tȟamáheča čhaŋkȟáğathipi mahéd t’Á (Bear Lean log-lodge inside died). Lean Bear died in a log cabin.

1877-78:          Matȟó Núŋpa t’Á (Bear Two died). Chief Two Bear died.

1878-79:          GnaškíŋyAŋ Máni wayázaŋ (To-Be-Raging-Mad/Crazy Walk to-be-sick). Crazy Walker was sick.
           
Blue Thunder variant: Crazy Walker was so sick they carried him in a blanket to another lodge. He got well again.

1879-80:          Pȟá ȞuğáhAŋ wakȟáŋ wóhaŋpi káğA (Head Dented/Broken-Into with-energy feast-they to-make). Broken Head made a sacred feast that winter.

1880-81:          Itázipa Dúta iná t’Á (Bow Red mother died). Red Bow’s mother died.

1881-82:          Ziŋtkáda Čík’ada uŋgnúhaŋna t’Á (Bird Little suddenly/unexpectedly died). Little Bird died suddenly.

1882-83:          Tȟatȟáŋka Dúta t’Á (Bison-Bull Red died). Red Bull died.

1884-85:          Wasú Dúta čhuŋwíŋtku t’Á (Hail Red daughter died). Red Hail’s daughter died.

1885-86:          Hé Núŋpa WaníčA wakȟáŋ wóhaŋpi tȟáŋka káğA (Horn Two There-Is-None with-energy feast big to-make). No Two Horns made a large ceremonial feast.
           
No Two Horns made a big feast in the winter in memory of his sister who had passed away the previous summer.

1886-87:          Matȟó Núŋpa huŋká waŋžítku t’Á, Čhečá Yámni ečíyapi (Bear Two ceremoniously-adopted one-his died, Thighs Three name-they). Two Bear’s ceremonially adopted brother, whom they called Three Thighs, died.

1887-88:          Matȟó Witkó wačhípi thitȟáŋka othí (Bear Crazy/Foolish dance-they lodge-big dwell). Fool Bear held a dance in a large lodge where he dwelt.

1888-89:          Šaké Waŋblí kaškápi t’Á (Claw Eagle imprisoned died). Eagle Claw died in captivity.
           
No Two Horns says this was in Fort Yates, DT; Blue Thunder says this was in Mandan, DT. Both No Two Horns and Blue Thunder list an alternate name of Frosted Red Fish for Eagle Claw.

1889-90:          Wáğačhaŋ, Wičhíyena itȟáŋčhaŋ t’Á (Cottonwood, Wičhíyena chief died). Cottowood, an Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna chief, died.

1890-91:          Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake ktépi (Bison-Bull Sitting-Down killed they). They killed Sitting Bull.

1891-92:          Mázaska yámni waŋžígži wičhák’u (Iron-white three each-one-apiece them-give). $3.00 to each person.

1892-93:          Šúŋkawakȟaŋ khí mázaska wikčémna tópa otóiyohi (Horse take-away iron-white ten four each-and-every-one). $40.00 for each horse taken away.

1893-94:          Mázaska hokšída šuŋg’yúslohAŋ t’Á (“Money” boy horse-drag-along die).
A boy was dragged to death by a horse at the Mandan Rodeo. His name was Mázaska (Silver or “Money”). He was twelve years old.

1894-95:          Wakhéya Áya t’Á (Tent To-There-From-Here died). Carries The Lodge died.

1895-96:          Tȟáisto KsÁ t’Á (His-Arm Cut-Off died). His Arm Cut Off  (H.S. Parkins) died.

1896-97:          PažípA t’Á. Pȟá Tȟáŋka čhiŋkšítku. (To-Sting died. Head Big son.) To-Sting died. He was Big Head’s son.

1897-98:          Nağí Wakȟáŋ t’Á (Soul With-Energy died). Holy Soul died.

1898-99:          Matȟó Héya t’Á (Bear Louse died). Louse Bear died.

1899-1900:      Matȟó Ȟotá tȟabkápsičapi t’Á. Mandan Fair éd. (Bear Grey to-strike-a-ball-with-a-bat-they died. Mandan Fair at.) Grey Bear died playing shinny. At the Mandan Fair.

1900-01:          Wapȟáha Wašté owíŋža mahé ğú (Warbonnet Good/Pretty bed in burn). Pretty Warbonnet was burned in bed.

1901-02:          Wapȟóštaŋ t’Á. (To-put-something-on-one’s-head died). Hat died.
                        Hat, a policeman, died.

1902-03:          Matȟó Ȟóta úŋtȟuŋ, hú kašúžA, hú ksÁ, t’Á (Bear Grey injure, leg broke, leg cut-off, died). Grey Bear’s injury was a broken leg, which was removed, then he died.

1903-04:          Šúŋka Čík’ada t’á (Dog Little died). Little Dog died.

1904-05:          Waŋbdí Ská t’á (Eagle White died). White Eagle died.

1905-06:          Matȟó SápA ktépi (Bear Black killed-they). Black Bear was killed.

1906-07:          Joe Tomahawk ič’ikte (Joe Tomahawk to-kill-oneself). Joe Tomahawk committed suicide.

1907-08:          Makȟá Wiŋ t’Á (Earth Woman died). Earth Woman died.

1908-09:          Matȟó Núŋpa iná t’Á (Bear Two mother died). Two Bear’s mother died.

1909-10:          Maȟpíya Kiŋy'Aŋ kaškA, Akíčita Háŋska Otȟúŋwahe éd (Cloud Flying imprison, Soldier Long Village at). Flying Cloud was imprisoned at Fort Yates.

1910-11:          Matȟó Waŋkátuya t’Á (Bear On-High died). High Bear died.

1911-12:          Matȟó Čhuwíyuksa t’Á (Bear From-The-Waist-Up died). Half Body Bear [Bear Vest?] died. He was known in English as Bear Coat.

1912-13:          Šúŋka Dúta tȟawíča t’Á (Dog Red his-wife died). Red Dog’s wife died.

1913-14:          Akíčita huŋkádowaŋpi waníyetu (Soldier to-have-for-a-relative-singing-over-they winter). That winter they adopted a soldier (Col. A.B. Welch).