Thursday, November 21, 2019

Dakota Moon Counting Tradition, A Poster

Above, a screen capture of the Dakhóta moons throughout the year.
Haŋwíyawapi Wičhóh'aŋ Kiŋ
óta Moon Counting Tradition
Bismarck, N.D. (The First Scout) (Updated) - The Isáŋyathi, Dakhóta-speaking people east of the Red River of the north, east of the Big Sioux River, follow a twelve-month calendar. 

Their calendar system is much like that the moon counting tradition of the Thítȟuŋwaŋ, the Lakȟóta-speaking people west of the Missouri River. There are sometimes more than one name for the month, but each month reflected a deep relationship with that the people have with the environment. This informs us, that there was a long occupation and a record of observation for the people to survive and adapt to the landscape. 

Feedback from Spirit Lake informs us that the Dakhóta did, in fact, employ a thirteen-month traditional calendar. The twelve-month calendar indicates assimilation. Philámayaye Lekší. 

The historic Očhéthi Šakówiŋ held a world-view perspective that was south-oriented. Taking this into account, then the rotation of the moon and the rotation of the earth around the sun would give us a moon calendar layout that looks like the poster above with the cycle of the moons and the phases of the moons "read" in a counter-clockwise manner.

Of course, the 
Očhéthi Šakówiŋa would never have laid out images like this, rather, they kept track of the moons with counting sticks.

Get your copy of this 36"x48" poster of the Dakhóta Moon Counting Tradition for FREE. Share this with others and your classroom today. 

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Historical Record On Beaver Creek

WA NA TA, THE CHARGER, Grand Chief of the Sioux, by Charles King Bird.
Missing Narrative In North Dakota
Historical Record On Beaver Creek

By Dakota Wind
Linton, N.D. (The First Scout) – There is a great long gradual rise on the vast open prairie between the Mnišóše (The Water-Astir, or “Missouri River”) and Čhaŋsáŋsaŋ Wakpá (White Birch River, or “James River”). The Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Little End Village, or “Yanktonai”) who occupied this region for hundreds of years call this rise Ȟé Mníšoše, the Water-Astir Ridge. The French called it the Coteau du Missouri.

The Očhéthi Šakówiŋ often know places by two or more names. An everyday name for everyday things like hunting or gathering. A site may have a special or spiritual significance. The Middle Dakhóta called the Water-Astir Ridge, just that, when they hunted and gathered. When they prayed there, when they put their relatives to rest on the coteau, they called it Wanáǧi Tȟamákhočhe, or Country of the Spirits.

For the Dakhóta, the Water-Astir Ridge begins in the north by Šuŋk’óthi Pahá, or Wolf Den Butte, which is today called Dogden Butte. The coteau reaches southwest to a point near the North Dakota-South Dakota border by Forbes, ND. A creek across the border meanders across the plain and serves as a natural boundary of the coteau. This creek has two names in Dakhóta, and if that weren’t enough, it has two designations in English. 

The Battle of Whitestone Hill, as it appeared in Harpers Weekly, October 31, 2863.

A gulch six miles west-southwest of Forbes, ND is known to the Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna as Šúŋka Wakȟáŋ Wičháktepi, or Where Their Horses Were Killed, in reference to the horses that were wounded in the 1863 Whitestone Hill Conflict carried survivors to this point and laid down to rest.

This creek is known by the Middle Dakhóta as Wíŋkta Wakpána (Hermaphrodite Creek) or Dakhóta Núm Wakpá (Two Dakota Creek). The Corps of Discovery called it Stone Idol Creek. The modern population in the vicinity of Pollock call it Spring Creek. This stream originates about nine miles south-southeast of Ashley, ND.

Another stream that bears re-examination is Čhápa Wakpána, or Beaver Creek. It rises at Bdé Čhápa, or Beaver Lake, and flows out of the coteau about 108 miles west to join the Mnišóše by the Beaver Creek Recreation Area by HWY 1804.

In the fall of 1839, Waná’ata, the Charger, led his band of Dakhóta to make their winter camp. It was his last winter. The camp spread out for miles along the creek. The Charger was a veteran of the War of 1812. He was commissioned a captain by British Indian Agent Col. Robert Dickson. The Charger led several hundred Dakhóta people at the battles of Fort Miegs and Fort Stephen in Ohio. He was so influential on the field, his bravery so renowned, that President Martin Van Buren met with the Charger and commissioned his likeness in a portrait. The Charger also met with King George III. Was the Charger an important and influential figure in the history of the American West? A president and a king seemed to think so.

In 1818, at Fort Snelling, the Charger became a devoted proponent of the United States.

The Charger led a command of hundreds of Dakhóta and Lakȟóta warriors in the first ever punitive campaign against a Plains Indian people, the Arikara, in the Arikara War of 1823. 

U.S. General Land Office Map, No. 12, 1878, details Grant's executive order extending the boundaries of Standing Rock Agency into present-day Emmons County.

President Grant extended the boundary of the Standing Rock Agency in his Executive Order, dated March 16, 1875, from west of the Missouri River, east of the agency along Beaver Creek to about where 19th Ave SE, Linton, ND is located, and south into North Campbell, SD. This boundary set aside land for the Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna Dakhóta people. The people who fought on the side of the United States were recognized for their service and dedication by the federal government and the president set aside land for them in perpetuity.

There’s plenty of cultural and occupational history in Emmons County. If only there were some kind of in-depth historical Class III survey that could document these significant events.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Lakota Territory Poster

Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (Seven Council Fires) Territory Poster, above, shows several maps, all of which show an occupation in the heart of North America.
Očhéthi Šakówiŋ Territory Poster
Traditional Homeland Of Great Sioux Nation
By Dakota Wind
Bismarck, N.D. (The First Scout) - Over 1800 places across the Great Plains have been pinned on a Google Map, drawn from oral tradition, books, journals, historic maps, to create a resource that reflects a historical and cultural occupational history of the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (Seven Council Fires, or "Great Sioux Nation") over the past three hundred years. 

The Google Map, called Makȟóčhe Wašté (The Good Country, or The Beautiful Country), has over 1800 places in the language of the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ people. Over 24,000 geo-referenced pins on over two hundred historical maps using Google Earth and the David Rumsey Map Collection at the Stanford University Library were employed to create a map history detailing the historic and cultural occupation of the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ in the heart of North America. 

The Makȟóčhe Wašté Map demands a lot of computer memory and bandwidth that it is best accessed online via desktop computer. This poster was created to provide viewers and educators a general view of the Great Plains as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ saw it, with a south-orientation. A screen capture image of various points shows not just occupation but far reaches of inter-tribal trade. The map is updated as placenames are shared or revealed. 

Three historic maps drawn by Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna Dakhóta (the Whitestone Hill Massacre Map by Richard Cottonwood guided by Takes His Shield) and Húŋkpapȟa Lakȟóta (the two maps of the 1876 Little Bighorn Fight) are included. All three are south-oriented. A Google Map overlaps the various historic occupations (blue is Dakhóta; purple is the Middle Dakhóta; red is Lakȟóta). 

Also included are two historic trader maps, one by John Pope when he was a trader before the 1862 Minnesota Dakota Conflict, and the other by Joseph Nicollet. Both of these maps demarcate the landscape with hundreds of placenames in Dakhóta. 

An explanation of the south-orientation worldview perspective can be found here.

Lastly, several Lakȟóta names appear in large, bold, red text which recalls how they referred to the Great Plains, and by extension North America. This poster measures 36"x48". Download your free Lakota Territory Poster and share it. 

Friday, August 30, 2019

Moon Counting Tradition, A Poster

Pictured above is a screen capture of a poster with information about the Moon Counting Tradition. 
Haŋwíyawapi Wičhóȟ'aŋ Kiŋ
The Moon Counting Tradition
Dakota Wind, Editor
Bismarck, N.D. (The First Scout) - Winter Count Keepers kept track of time by following natural changes in the environment and naming the moon in which that moon became associated. 

Months were moons, and thirteen moons represented a winter. The Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (the Seven Council Fires; the "Great Sioux Nation") called a cycle of thirteen moons a winter because winter was the longest season on the Northern Plains. 

A moon could have many names. The Wolf Moon one year may be called the Moon of Popping Trees the next. The Yellow Leaf Moon among the Lakȟóta might also be called the Brown Leaf Moon; this same moon among the Dakhóta would be called the Moon When Rise is Laid Up to Dry. 

The historic Lakȟóta held a world-view perspective that was south-oriented. Taking this into account, then the rotation of the moon and the rotation of the earth around the sun would give us a moon calendar layout that looks like the poster above with the cycle of the moons and the phases of the moons "read" in a counter-clockwise manner. 

Of course, the traditional Lakȟóta would never have laid out images like this, rather, the winter count keeper kept track of the moons with counting sticks. 

This poster measures at 3' x 4' and is available for FREE, click here. Share this poster with others and your classroom today. 

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Months of the Lakota Year as told to Rev Peter Rosen

Months of The Lakota Year
As Told to Rev. Peter Rosen

Edited by Dakota Wind
Rev. Peter Rosen was a Catholic missionary for seven years in the Black Hills beginning with his first placement at St. Andrew’s Parrish in Deadwood, Dakota Territory, 1882. Rosen collected any writing he could to acquaint himself with the Black Hills. He collected newspapers, books, copies of government records, church records including the manuscripts of Fr. Pierre DeSmet, and oral stories on his many various trips in and around the ‘Hills.

In 1895, Rosen published Pa-ha-sa-pah, or, The Black Hills of South Dakota: A Complete History. It was a series of six books published as one volume, with the first three focusing on the indigenous occupation of the Black Hills, their mythologies, and long associations with the ‘Hills.

Amongst Rosen’s work is a collection of Lakȟóta names for the twelve months of the year. The Lakȟóta employ a thirteen-month lunar calendar, not a twelve-month astrological one. Rosen recording offers readers a glimpse of both Lakȟóta and Dakhóta names for the times of year, with a few variant names. These month names have been re-written using the Standard Lakota Orthography which was developed by the Lakota Language Consortium; some of these month names appear in the LLC’s New Lakota Dictionary.

Theȟí Wí (Difficult Moon)

Wičhítegleǧa Wí (Racoon Moon)

Ištáwičhayazaŋ Wí (Sore Eye Moon)

Maǧáokada Wí (Moon When Geese Lay Their Eggs)
Watópȟapi Wí (Moon When They Paddle Their Canoes)

Wóžupi Wí (The Planting Moon)

Wažúštečaša Wí (Ripe Strawberry Moon)

Čhaŋpȟásapa Wí (Ripe Chokecherry Moon)
Wašúŋpȟa Wí (When The Geese Shed Their Feathers Moon)

Wasútȟuŋ Wí (Moon When Things Ripen)

Psiŋ’hnáketu Wí (Moon When They Lay Up Rice [To Dry])

Wážupi Wí (Drying Rice Moon)

Thakíyuȟa Wí (Deer Rutting Moon)

Tȟahékapšuŋ Wí (Moon When Deer Shed Their Horns)

Friday, March 15, 2019

A Resolution To Study A Dichotomy Of Archaeology & Indigenous History

Aerial view of North Dakota State Capitol, Bismarck, N.D. Digital Horizons. 2004-P-19-0014.
A Resolution To Study A Dichotomy
Archaeology & Indigenous History
By Dakota Wind
I attended a committee hearing this morning for Senate Concurrent Resolution 4017 at the North Dakota State Legislature. The summary of the bill is:

“A concurrent resolution directing the Legislative Management to consider studying the dichotomy between the archaeological discipline on cultural resources and the knowledge and expertise of tribal elders and tribal historic preservation officers to educate local, state, and federal agencies and the public; and the facilitation of effective consultation and cooperation for historic and prehistoric site identification and registration and the betterment of North Dakota and its citizens.”

I understand the language of this bill to mean that this is a study only, to begin a dialog between State Historic Preservation Office of North Dakota, the Tribal Historic Preservation Offices and tribal expertise to articulate the importance of known, recorded, sacred, and unrecorded historic sites to the people of North Dakota.

The sponsors of this bill are Sen. Joan Heckaman, Sen. Jordan Kannianen, Sen. Richard Marcellais, Sen. Dave Oehike, Rep. Ruth Buffalo, and Rep. Gretchen Dobervitch.

Sen. Marcellais and Rep. Buffalo introduced the resolution and public testimony followed almost unanimously in favor of this bill.

North Dakota Indian Affairs Commissioner Scott Davis spoke about his boots on the ground approach to meeting with energy interests about the importance of indigenous heritage sites in North Dakota. “It is what it is,” said Commissioner Davis regarding the development of energy resources, even as he spoke of the necessity of dialog between tribes, the state, and energy interests.

Dr. Erich Longie, Tribal Historic Preservation Officer of Spirit Lake began by greeting everyone, “Hiháŋna wašté!” he said. Dr. Longie spoke of the challenges and milestones all of the North Dakota’s citizens have made together in the name of progress while sharing the challenges he faced growing up in North Dakota. He urged the committee to support the concurrent resolution.

Mr. Calvin Grinnell spoke eloquently in support of this resolution. Former Sen. Tracy Potter took the mic and encouraged a change in wording from “dichotomy” in this study to something else, that the most important tool he learned in his political career was to listen, then he promptly left. Two more spoke in support of the resolution, then Fern Swenson took the stand.

I offered testimony in support of the resolution. I shared that there is more to the discussion than the physical record – archaeology – and we need to include the historical record. I then cited a dozen primary historic examples for the failure of the Dakota Access Pipeline’s Class III Survey, information that is completely missing from the report; and cited primary historical documents relating to the prison camp history of the Nez Perce at Fort Abraham Lincoln.

Swenson, the Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer at the State Historic Preservation Office, gave a most tepid oration that, as it turns out, was neither in support or against the resolution. She just wanted the committee to know how many thousands of sites the SHPO manages, how they work with the tribes of North Dakota, and how they assist the tribes “if they ask for it.”

When the committee asked if there were any who opposed the resolution, no one came forward.