I wrote this paper for the Past Times, a quarterly paper published by the Fort Abraham Lincoln Foundation, back in 2009. At the time I put it together and got it published it was a little too long to include the bibliography. I saved the file on my flash drive, the flash drive went through the washer and dryer. The file became corrupt and I could no longer access it. What I have below is the paper as it was published. North Dakota author and historian, Mark Deidrich, also wrote a nice paper about Waneta, and one could find it at the Bismarck State College's library.
Waneta was a War Chief of the Cut Head Band of Yanktonai Dakota, as was his father, Red Thunder, before him. Red Thunder’s eldest daughter, Ista Totowin (Blue Eyes Woman) or Helen Elizabeth Winona (b. 1781, d. unknown), was married to the English Indian Agent, Robert Dickson.
Waneta was born about 1795 in what is now
. He joined his father, Red Thunder, in siding with the British against the Brown County, South Dakota during the War of 1812. He fought at the siege of United States Fort Meigs in 1813 and at and was wounded in the latter battle, receiving nine life threatening wounds. It was at Sandusky , that he received the name Wana’ata (Leading the Charge), or Waneta (The Charger), for leading the charge against the Americans. There in battle, Waneta killed seven men in hand-to-hand combat. During the attack on Sandusky , he was struck by a musket ball and three buckshot in the chest. The bearing glanced on his breastbone, passed around under skin and came out at his back. Already wounded, Waneta took five more shots, and yet he stood and held his ground. Sandusky
In his hair, in later paintings or sketches, Waneta is pictured with nine wooden knives or sometimes nine feathers to represent his deeds and injuries at
After the war, the British rewarded Waneta for his loyalty by presenting him with a captain's commission. He subsequently visited
and was taken before King George III. England
Upon Waneta’s return from
England, he resumed his chieftanship and immediately resumed the Dakotas’ age-old feud against the Chippewa near Pembina. He completely annihilated the Chippewa band living there, leaving none alive.
President Martin Van Buren. In the late 1830s, The Charger had met this president.
During the summer solstice of 1819, Waneta celebrated in the annual sun dance. In preparation for the dance, he gave away all his posessions. Whatever vision or sacred call Waneta received from the Creator, certainly left him a changed man. In the spring of 1820, he led a party of Yanktonai and Sissetons to
, ostensibly to have a friendly visit with Colonel Snelling about the murder of a tribesman. On the march to the fort, Waneta flew the Union Jack, and on arrival he burned his flag, but was seized at the fort’s entrance and the guards found reason to believe that he was there to attack the fort. Waneta was placed under arrest, his possessions seized, and he was marched before the colonel. Snelling saw for himself all the badges and medals awarded to the chief and came to the conclusion that Waneta must have been there on behalf of the English. Snelling then burned all Waneta’s trophies before his eyes. Snelling then ordered his men to forcibly “naturalize” the chief until he was fully convinced of the power of the Americans. So beaten was Waneta that his warriors thought him dead at first, and immediately gashed the flesh of their arms in sorrow. Amazingly, the chief’s policy ever after was peace towards the whites. Perhaps the chief’s vision the previous summer prepared him for this new direction and allegiance to the Fort Snelling , whom he faithfully served until his last days. United States
Fort Snelling in the 1840s, this is probably as close to how The Charger saw it twenty years previous.
In 1823, the first
U.S. military campaign was waged against a tribe on the Great Plains against the Arikara Indians, called the War of 1823, or the Arikara War. The Sioux Indians demonstrated their whole-hearted commitment to the United States by siding with the Missouri Legion led by Colonel Leavenworth against the Arikara, north of present-day Mobridge, SD, on the Missouri River. Waneta was directly responsible for exacting a tribute from the Arikara for not killing them, and took much of their food stock for the coming winter. He set up winter camp on Beaver Creek and took tribute from the for protecting them from the rest of the Sioux. Mandan
Waneta’s chieftanship was strongly supported by extensive family connections and a strong belief that he was guarded by supernatural protection. In his thirties and forties, Waneta took to wearing an officer’s uniform, top boots, green spectacles, a saber, and pistols. It was because of Waneta’s penchant for wearing spectacles, that he was later called Ista Maza, or Iron Eyes.
There were two treaties of Prairie Du Chien. Visit http://www.ndstudies.org/resources/IndianStudies/spiritlake/historical_treaties.html for a breakdown of what the treaty entailed for the Dakota and Lakota Sioux.
A dominant chief of the Sioux tribe, Waneta signed a trade treaty with the Americans on July 25, 1825. On August 17 the very next month and 450 miles later, he signed the first Treaty of Prairie du Chien which fixed the boundaries of Sioux territory. Waneta’s dominance, charisma, and authority became so great, that at least one of his own tribesmen became resentful and jealous of his recognition.
Charles King Bird created this striking image of The Charger. His bear claw necklace and nine feathers are clearly seen. Brilliant red moccasins adorn his feet and calves.
In 1826, Waneta made a trip to
Washington DC, in celebration of the peace and trade made with the in the treaties the previous year. While there at the Capital, Waneta’s likeness was forever preserved by artist Charles King Bird. U.S.
Fort Pierre by Choteau.
In the summer of 1832 at
, George Catlin painted Waneta’s likeness. Catlin noted that the chief’s influence was supreme on the Fort Pierre Upper Missouri, without rival. Traders on the characterized Waneta as brave, skillful, sagacious, artful, but also grasping and sometimes overbearing. Missouri
When Waneta was about 44, he was struck with snowblindness that he never fully recovered from and he lost his sight altogether when cataracts formed over both of his eyes. With the loss of his sight, went the loss of his chieftanship.
Waneta died in 1840 at the mouth of the
Warreconne River, the present Beaver Creek in what is now . He was struck down by one of his own tribesman, blind and unable to defend himself. Emmons County, North Dakota
Waneta had two sons, Iron Eyes and The Charger II. The descendants of the son Iron Eyes reside on the Standing Rock Sioux Indian Resevation.
A United States Navy ship was named the USS Waneta in honor of Waneta.